Advertisement

Study of Profile Changes during Mechanical Polishing using Relocation Profilometry

  • S. Chidambara Kumaran
  • M. S. ShunmugamEmail author
Original Contribution
  • 68 Downloads

Abstract

Mechanical polishing is a finishing process practiced conventionally to enhance quality of surface. Surface finish is improved by mechanical cutting action of abrasive particles on work surface. Polishing is complex in nature and research efforts have been focused on understanding the polishing mechanism. Study of changes in profile is a useful method of understanding behavior of the polishing process. Such a study requires tracing same profile at regular process intervals, which is a tedious job. An innovative relocation technique is followed in the present work to study profile changes during mechanical polishing of austenitic stainless steel specimen. Using special locating fixture, micro-indentation mark and cross-correlation technique, the same profile is traced at certain process intervals. Comparison of different parameters of profiles shows the manner in which metal removal takes place in the polishing process. Mass removal during process estimated by the same relocation technique is checked with that obtained using weight measurement. The proposed approach can be extended to other micro/nano finishing processes and favorable process conditions can be identified.

Keywords

Mechanical polishing Relocation profilometry Profile changes Surface roughness Mass removal 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to the sponsoring agencies DST (Grant No. SR/S3/MERC-68/2004 dated 08-06-2007) and IIT Madras (Grant No. MEE/03-04/181/IDRP/OVKC dated 01-10-2003) for providing the measurement facilities, at the Manufacturing Engineering Section, necessary to carry out the present investigation.

References

  1. 1.
    E. Rabinowicz, L.A. Dunn, P.G. Russell, A study of abrasive wear under three-body conditions. Wear 4, 345–355 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.L. Aghan, L.E. Samuels, Mechanisms of abrasive polishing. Wear 16, 293–301 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Komanduri, D.A. Lucca, Y. Tani, Technological advances in fine abrasive processes. Ann CIRP Manuf Technol 46(2), 545–596 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Kasai, K. Horio, A. Kobayashi, Improvement of conventional polishing conditions for obtaining super smooth surfaces of glass and metal works. Ann CIRP Manuf Technol 39(1), 321–324 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D.A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, B.A. Mullany, Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing 2003. Ann CIRP Manuf Technol 52(2), 611–633 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L.E. Samuels, B. Wallace, Effects of type and size of diamond abrasives on material removal rates in metallographic polishing. Metallography 17, 19–41 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Xie, B. Bhushan, Effects of particle size, polishing pad and contact pressure in free abrasive polishing. Wear 200, 281–295 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    L.S. Deshpande, S. Raman, O. Sunanta, C. Agbaraji, Observations in the flat lapping of stainless steel and bronze. Wear 265, 105–116 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.E. Parks, C.J. Evans, Rapid post-polishing of diamond-turned optics. Precis Eng 16, 223–227 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Chauhan, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, T.N. Farris, Role of indentation fracture in free abrasive machining of ceramics. Wear 162–164, 246–257 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    V.H. Bulsara, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, T.N. Farris, Mechanics of polishing. J Appl Mech 65, 410–416 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.H. Chang, T.N. Farris, S. Chandrasekar, Contact mechanics of superfinishing. J Tribol 122, 388–393 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    X. Zhu, C. Chung, C.S. Korach, I. Kao, Experimental study and modeling of the effect of mixed size abrasive grits on surface topology and removal rate in water lapping. Wear 305, 14–22 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Zhou, S.T. Huang, X.L. Wang, L.F. Xu, High-speed mechanical lapping of CVD diamond films using diamond wheel. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 35, 185–190 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T.C. Hung, S.H. Chang, C.C. Lin, Y.T. Su, Effects of abrasive particle size and tool surface irregularities on wear rates of work and tool in polishing processes. Microelectron Eng 889, 2981–2990 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    X.L. Jin, L.C. Zhang, A statistical model for material removal prediction in polishing. Wear 274–275, 203–211 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Fan, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y.S. Wong, G.S. Hong, W. Zhou, Modeling and analysis of the material removal profile for free abrasive polishing with sub-aperture pad. J Mater Process Technol 214, 285–294 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Aida, S.W. Kim, K. Ikejiri, T. Doi, T. Yamazaki, K. Seshimo, K. Koyama, H. Takeda, N. Aota, Precise mechanical polishing of brittle materials with free diamond abrasives dispersed in micro–nano-bubble water. Precis Eng 40, 81–86 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Savio, R. Meneghello, G. Concheri, A surface roughness predictive model in deterministic polishing of ground glass moulds. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf 49, 1–7 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S.H. Chang, Basic study of superfinishing of hardened steels. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, USA, 1998Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.B.P. Williamson, R.T. Hunt, Relocation profilometry. J Phys E Sci Instrum 1, 749–752 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.J. Whitehouse, The measurement and analysis of surfaces. Tribology 7, 249–259 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.J. Whitehouse, Surfaces and Their Measurement (Hermes Penton, London, 2002)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.S. Shunmugam, D.J. Whitehouse, Surfaces and surface metrology. Int J Precis Technol 3, 317–332 (2013). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.H. Uppal, S.D. Probert, Deformation of single and multiple asperities on metal surfaces. Wear 20, 381–400 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. Radhakrishnan, O.V.K. Chetty, B.T. Achyutha, Application of a relocation technique to the study of surface production in electrochemical machining and electrodischarge machining. Wear 68, 1–6 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    X. Roizard, J. von Stebut, Surface asperity flattening in sheet metal forming—a 3-D relocation stylus profilometric study. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 35(2), 169–175 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.C. Kumaran, M.S. Shunmugam, Study of profile changes in magneto-rheological abrasive honing by an ingenious relocation technique, Proceedings of 5th International and 26th All India Manufacturing Technology Design and Research Conference, AIMTDR, Art 874, 1–6, 2014Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.S. Shunmugam, V. Radhakrishnan, Selection and fitting of reference line for surface profiles. Proc IMechE, Lond 190(7/76), 193–201 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Kumar, M.S. Shunmugam, Fitting of a robust reference profile for separation of form and waviness from surface profiles. Trans NAMRI/SME 34, 523–530 (2006)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Pogačnik, M. Kalin, How to determine the number of asperity peaks, their radii and their heights for engineering surfaces: a critical appraisal. Wear 300, 143–154 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations