Development of Pakoda Using Semi-Automatic Pakoda-Making Machine: Thermal, Rheological, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties

  • Anit Kumar
  • Rachna Sehrawat
  • Dharmesh Chandra SaxenaEmail author
Original Contribution


Pakoda is a traditional fried snack of South Asia. The making process of pakoda is not standardized and is laborious and time-consuming. Keeping these limitations in view, the present study was undertaken to develop a semi-automatic pakoda-making machine as well as the standardization of batter to suit the machine. The onion pakoda was prepared in pakoda-making machine and analyzed for its thermal properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal diffusivity and overall heat transfer coefficient). The predicted and experimental values of heat transfer during frying were analyzed, and finally, the machine-prepared pakoda was compared with market-purchased pakoda for quality analysis, i.e., moisture content, fat content, color and texture. Rheology of different flour dispersions of pakoda batter was also analyzed. The machine-prepared pakoda had significantly lower fat content (22.33%) as compared to market-purchased pakoda (32.33%). Also, machine-prepared pakoda had significantly better quality in terms of color and texture.


Pakoda-making machine Rheological Physicochemical and sensory properties 



The authors express their sincere appreciation to Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Punjab, India, for supporting the research study.


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Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering and TechnologySant Longowal Institute of Engineering and TechnologyLongowalIndia

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