Adaptability of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash in Mortar

  • P. JagadeshEmail author
  • A. Ramachandramurthy
  • R. Murugesan
  • T. Karthik Prabhu
Original Contribution


Backbone of India’s economy is agriculture. Major commodities which contribute to agriculture include sugar and alcohol. Sugar production process produces bagasse as a waste residue, which is used as fuel for boilers that produce steam for electricity generation. After burning the bagasse in boiler, the residual sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) is used as soil fertilizer, filling material, etc., but mostly dumped as land waste. The present study is an approach to increase the utilization of SCBA and to conserve scarcely available natural sand and energy-intensive cement. This research aims to study the feasibility incorporation of SCBA from the same source of size less than 90 microns as a replacement for ordinary portland cement (OPC) and those of size greater than 150 microns as fine aggregate (FA) replacement in cement mortar. For detailed analysis, the ash samples were subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and sieve analysis. Mortars with SCBA as OPC and FA replacement were casted separately, and mechanical tests were carried out. The results indicated that the SCBA samples showed physical properties similar to those of OPC and FA. Relationship between cube and cylinder compressive strength was also derived. Relationship between compressive strength and water-to-binder (W/B) ratio is derived and compared with previous empirical studies. The blended mortars produced with SCBA in place of OPC and FA showed enhanced mechanical results compared to that of reference samples.


Sugar cane bagasse ash Sustainable Material characterization Mechanical properties 



The authors wish to thank the Structural Engineering Laboratory, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, for their experimental supports in using Computerized compression machine of capacity 3000 kN sponsored by DST-FIST, New Delhi, and also thank the Sugar Cane Industry in Erode for providing the sugar cane bagasse ash used in this investigation. The fund provided by TEQIP-II for conducting experiments is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    K. Ganesan, K. Rajagopal, K. Thangavel, Evaluation of bagasse ash as supplementary cementitious material. Cem. Concr. Compos. 29, 515–524 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Sales, S.A. Lima, Use of Braziian sugar cane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement. Waste Manag. 30, 1114–1122 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    “Sugar: World Markets and Trade”. United states Department of Agriculture (USDA), Foreign Agriculture Services, May 2018Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Yoshizawa, M. Tanaka, A.V. Shekdar (eds.), Global trends in waste generation, in: Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology (TMS Mineral, Metals and Materials Publishers, Madrid, 2004), pp. 1541–1552Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    “Handbook on Indian Sugar Mills Association”, Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA) (2018)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F.M. Martinera Hernández, B. Middeendorf, M. Gehrke, H. Budelmann, Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: study of the reaction. Cem. Concr. Res. 281, 1525–1536 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.E. Souza, S.R. Teixeira, G.T.A. Santos, F.B. Costa, E. Longo, Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash to produce ceramic materials. J. Environ. Manag. 92(10), 2774–2780 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G.C. Corderio, R.D. Toledo Filho, L.M. Tavares, E.M.R. Fairbairn, Pozzolanic activity and filler effect of sugar cane bagasse ash in Portland cement and lime mortars. Cem. Concr. Compos. 30(5), 410–418 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Jagadesh, A. Ramachandramurthy, R. Murugesan, K. Sarayu, Micro analytical studies of sugar cane bagasse ash. Sadana Acad. Sci. 40(5), 1693 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    GAIN Report. India Sugar Annual, USDA Foreign Agricultural Services (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    GAIN Report. India Sugar Annual, USDA Foreign Agricultural Services (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    GAIN Report. India Sugar Annual, USDA Foreign Agricultural Services (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    GAIN Report. India Sugar Annual, USDA Foreign Agricultural Services (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    GAIN Report. India Sugar Annual, USDA Foreign Agricultural Services (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    GAIN Report. India Sugar Annual, USDA Foreign Agricultural Services (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Shafigh, H.B. Mahmuda, M.Z. Jumaat, M. Zargar, Agricultural wastes as aggregate in concrete mixtures: a review. Constr. Build. Mater. 53, 110–117 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Jagadesh, A. Ramachandramurthy, R. Murugesan, Effect of water cementitious ratio on the strength development of Unary Blended Concrete: an overview. Int. J. Earth Sci. Eng. 8(3), 1493–1500 (2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W.L. Greer, M.D. Johnson, E.L. Morton, E.C. Raught, H.E. Steuch, C.B. Trusty Jr., Portland cement in air pollution engineering, in Manual, ed. by A.J. Buonicore, W.T. Davis (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1995)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Maheswaran, S. Kalaiselvam, S.K.S. Saravana Karthikeyan, C. Kokila, G.S. Palani, ß-belite cements (ß-dicalcium silicate) obtained from calcined lime sludge and silica fume. Cem. Concr. Compos. 66, 57–65 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    U.S., Department of Interior & U.S Geological Survey 2015. Mineral Commodity Summarizes 2017 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G.C. Cordeiro, R.D. Toledo Filho, E.M.R. Fairbairn, Effect of calcination temperature on the pozzolanic activity of sugar cane bagasse ash. Constr. Build Mater. 23, 3301–3303 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G.C. Cordeiro, R.D. Toledo Filho, L.M. Tavares, E.M.R. Fairbairn, Ultrafine grinding of sugar cane bagasse ash for application as pozzolanic admixture in concrete. Cem. Concr. Res. 39, 110–115 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. Chusilp, C. Jaturapitakkul, K. Kiattikomol, Utilization of bagasse ash as a pozzolanic material in concrete. Constr. Build. Mater 23, 3352–3358 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. Anderson, A. Roy, R.K. Seals, F.K. Cartledge, H. Akhter, S.C. Jones, A preliminary assessment of the use of an amorphous silica residual as a supplementary cementing material. Cem. Concr. Res. 30, 437–445 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    V.G. Haach, G. Vasconcelos, P.B. Louren, Influence of aggregates grading and water/cement ratio in workability and hardened properties of mortars. Constr. Build. Mater. 25, 2980–2987 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Goldman, A. Bentur, Properties of cementiitous systems containing silica fume or non-reactive microfilers. Adv. Cem. Mater. 5, 209–215 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    E.V. Morales, E.V. Cocina, M. Frias, S.F. Santos, H. Savastano, Effects of calcining conditions on the microstructure of sugar cane waste ashes (SCWA): influence in the pozzolanic activation. Cem. Concr. Compos. 31(1), 22–28 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Frias, V. Ernesto, S. Holmer, Brazilian sugar cane bagasse ashes from the cogeneration industry as active pozzolans for cement manufacture. Cem. Concr. Compos. 33(4), 490–496 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Somna, C. Jaturapitakkul, P. Rattanachu, W. Chalee, Effect of ground bagasse ash on mechanical and durability properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Mater. Res, 36, 597–603 (2012)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    N.B. Singh, V.D. Singh, S. Rai, Hydration of bagasse ash-blended portland cement. Cem. Concr. Res. 30(9), 1485–1488 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Bahurudeen, M. Santhanam, Influence of different processing methods on the pozzolanic performance of SCBA. Cem. Concr. Compos. 56, 32–35 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Indian Standard 1727-2004. Method of Test for Pozzolanic Materials. First revision (Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1967)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Indian Standard 2386 – 1997. Method of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Part 3—Specific Gravity, Density, Voids, Absorption and Bulking, Eighth print (Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1997)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Indian Standard 2386 – 1997. Method of Test for Aggregates for Concrete, Part 1—Particle Size and Shape, Eleventh print (Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1997)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Bahurudeen, V. Marckson, A. Kishore, M. Santhanam, Development of sugarcane bagasse ash based Portland pozzolana cement and evaluation of compatibility with superplasticizers. Constr. Build Mater. 68, 465–475 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M.Y.A. Mollah, M. Kesmez, D.L. Cocke, An X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) investigation of the long-term effect on the solidification/stabilization (S/S) of arsenic(V) in Portland cement type-V. Sci. Tot. Environ. 325, 255–262 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    V.S. Batra, S. Urbonaite, G. Svensson, Characterization of unburned carbon in bagasse fly ash. Fuel 87(13–14), 2972–2976 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Pera, S. Husson, B. Guilhot, Influence of finely ground limestone on cement hydration. Cem. Concr. Compos. 21, 99–105 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. Langer, O.W. Florke, Near infrared absorption spectra (4000–9000 cm−1) of opals and the role of “water” in these SiO2 · nH2O minerals. Fortschr. Miner. 52(1), 17–51 (1974)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Sujjavanich, W. Mairiang, S. Sinthavorn, Some effects on datum temperature for maturity application on fly ash concrete. Kasetsart J. Nat. Sci. 38, 150–156 (2004)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. Demis, J.G. Tapali, V.G. Papadakis, An investigation of the effectiveness of the utilization of biomass ashes as pozzolanic materials. Const. Build. Mater. 68, 291–300 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Joshaghani, M.A. Moeini, Evaluating the effects of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and nanosilica on the mechanical and durability properties of mortar. Constr. Build. Mater. 152(15), 818–831 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    S.A. Ouda, H.A. Abdel-Gawwad, The effect of replacing sand by iron slag on physical, mechanical and radiological properties of cement mortar. HBRC J. 13, 255–261 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A.J. Hamad, Size and shape effect of specimen on the compressive strength of HPLWFC reinforced with glass fibres. J. King Saud Univ. Eng. Sci. 29, 373–380 (2017)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    K.B. Bhattacharjee, Flow behavior and strength for fly ash blended cement paste and mortar. Int. J. Sustain. Built Environ. 4, 270–277 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    L. K. A. Sear, J. Dews, B. Kite, F. B. Harris, J. F. Troy, Abrams rule, air and high water cement ratio. Construction and Building materials, 10(3), 221–226 (1996)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    F.A. Oluokun, Fly ash concrete mix design and water cement ratio law. ACI Mater. J. 91(36), 362–371 (1994)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    R. Féret, On the compactness of the mortars. Ann. Ponts Chaussées Série 7(4), 5–164 (1892). (in French) Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J.J.H. Alwash, Use of rice husk ash in cement mortar. J. Univ. Babylon Univ. Babylon J. 21(1), 582–590 (2013)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Venkatesh, Replacement of natural sand with cinder as a fine aggregate in cement mortar with compressive strength. Int. J. Res. Emerg. Res. Emerg. Sci. Technol. 3(8), 33–36 (2016)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    N. Chusilp, C. Jaturapitakkul, K. Kiattikomol, Effects of LOI ground bagasse ash on the compressive strength and sulfate resistance of mortars. Constr. Build. Mater. 23, 3523–3531 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    V.D. Katarae, M.V. Madurwar, Experimental characterization of sugarcane biomass ash: a review. Constr. Build. Mater. 152, 1–15 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    P. Jagadesh, A. Ramachandramurthy, R. Murugesan, Overview on properties of sugarcane bagasse ash as Pozzolan. Indian J. Geo Mar. Sci. 47(10), 1934–1945 (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Jagadesh
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Ramachandramurthy
    • 2
  • R. Murugesan
    • 3
  • T. Karthik Prabhu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringCoimbatore Institute of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Fatigue Fracture LaboratoryCSIR-SERCTaramani, ChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringInstitute of Road and Transport TechnologyErodeIndia

Personalised recommendations