Advertisement

Pharmacognostic Evaluation and Pharmacological Validation of Sphaeranthus indicus DC

  • Surabhi Tiwari
  • Pushpendra Kumar Shukla
  • Akanksha Srivastava
  • Manish Kumar
  • Ankita Misra
  • Sharad SrivastavaEmail author
Research Article
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

Sphaeranthus indicus is an important medicinal plant in Ayurveda which grows as weed in rice fields throughout India, Sri Lanka, Australia and Africa. The present study aimed for the pharmacognostical evaluation and pharmacological validation of this high-value medicinal species. All the pharmacognostical parameters were done as per the API guideline. A simple, rapid, sensitive and reproducible method was also developed for simultaneous HPTLC quantification of two bioactive compounds eugenol and β-sitosterol in S. indicus. The HPTLC was performed on silica gel 60 F254 by using toluene/ethyl acetate/glacial acetic acid (8:2:0.2) as a mobile phase for eugenol and β-sitosterol at Rf value 0.64 and 0.48, respectively. The content of eugenol (0.03%) and β-sitosterol (0.013%) was detected in dry weight per gram. In vitro activities viz. antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory were done to evaluate the pharmacological potential of S. indicus. Four antioxidant models viz. DPPH, ferric reducing power, 2-deoxyribose assay and antioxidant capacity were used to determine the free radical scanning. Antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potential were determined by using starch–iodine colour assay and inhibition of protein denaturation model. IC50 value of S. indicus extract in DPPH and 2-deoxyribose assay was found (328.96 ± 0.003 µg/ml) and (30.36 ± 0.004 µg/ml), respectively. The present study will be helpful for quality check of the raw material and monitoring batch-to-batch consistency of herbal drugs, wherein S. indicus is used as an ingredient.

Keywords

Sphaeranthus indicus Eugenol β-sitosterol HPTLC Antioxidant Antidiabetic 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Director, CSIR-NBRI, India, for providing the facilities to conduct this research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have any conflict of interest to publish this manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC (1996) Glossary of Indian medicinal plants, 1st edn. National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi, p 232Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ambavade S, Mhetre N, Tate V, Bodhankar S (2006) Pharmacological evaluation of the extracts of Spharenthus indicus flowers on anxiolytic activity in mice. Ind J Pharm 38(4):254–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rohit R, Mahendra S, Richa S, Kavitha M, Vikram SS (2014) A Clinical Study on the effect of Punarnavadi churna, Singhanada guggulu in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid Arthritis). Int J Ayurveda Pharm Res 2:46–54Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Galani VJ, Patel BG, Rana DG (2009) Sphaeranthus indicus Linn: a phytopharmacological review. Int J Ayurveda Res 1(4):247–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nadkarni AK (2007) Indian materia medica, vol 1, 3rd edn. Popular Parkashan Private Ltd, Bombay, p 1163Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prajapati N, Purohit SS, Sharma AK, Kumare TA (2003) Handbook of medicinal plants: a complete source book, 1st edn. Agrobios, Jodhpur, p 484Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Agarwal VS (1997) Drug plants of India, vol 2. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, p 656Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Galani VJ, Patel BG, Rana DG (2010) Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: a phytopharmacological review. Int J Ayurveda Res 1:247–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Makhija K, Richard L, Kirti SP, Saleemullah K, Jessy M, Shirwaikar A (2011) Sphaeranthus indicus: a review of its chemical, pharmacological and ethnomedical properties. Ind J Pharm 7:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jadhav BK, Khandelwal KR, Ketkar AR, Pisal SS (2004) Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive tablets containing eugenol for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 30(2):195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chellappandian M, Thanigaivel A, Srinivasan PA et al (2018) Toxicological effects of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) leaf essential oil against human disease vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn., and impacts on a beneficial mosquito predator. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:10294–10306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Singh S, Semwal BC, Neeli GS (2017) Microscopic and physicochemical evaluation of leaves of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Pharmacogn J 9(1):21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhutkar PM, Suganthi V, Bhutkar MV (2018) Medicinal uses of Sphaeranthus indicus: a review. Nat J Basic Med Sci 8(3):160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Venkatachalam D, Thavamani S, Muddukrishniah (2018) Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of leaf of Sphaeranthus indicus. Int J Pharm Pharm Res 11(3):186–206Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anonymous (2002) WHO guidelines, Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. A.I.T.B.S. Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, pp 6–84Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anonymous (2004) Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, vol 1. Government of India, Department of Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, pp 152–165Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anonymous (1984) Official methods of Analysis of Association of official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), Virginia, USGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bray HC, Thorpe WV (1954) Analysis of phenolic compounds of interest in metabolism. Methods Biochem Anal 1:27–52Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ordonez AA, Gomez JD, Vattuone MA, Isla MI (2006) Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) swart extracts. Food Chem 97(3):452–458.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kokate CK (2010) Practical pharmacognosy, 4th edn. Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi, pp 17–26Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Farhin Inam, Sujata Deo, Neha Narkhede (2014) Quantification of eugenol in various spices using high performance thin layer chromatogrphy. Int J Sci Eng Res 5(5):1576Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sutar RC, Kasture SB, Kalaichelvan VK (2014) Identification, quantification and validation of β-sitosterol from Holoptelea integrifolia (roxb.) planch using high performance thin layer chromatography method. Ind J Pharm Pharm Sci 6(5):249–252Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    ICH guideline Q2R1 (2005) Validation of analytical procedures: text and methodology, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shukla PK, Misra A, Srivastav S, Rawat AKS (2016) Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic ultra violet (photo diode array) quantification of oleanolic acid and its isomer ursolic acid for phytochemical comparison and pharmacological evaluation of four leucas species used in Ayurveda. Pharmacogn Mag 12(46):159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Prabhu KS, Lobo R, Shirwaikar A (2012) Free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of Spharanthus indicus (Linn.). Pharmacology 2:468–476Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oyaizu M (1986) Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr 44:307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M (1999) Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal Biochem 269:337–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Xiao Z, Storms R, Tsang A (2006) A quantitative starch–iodine method for measuring alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities. Anal Biochem 351:146–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mizushima Y, Kobayashi M (1968) Interaction of anti-inflammatory drugs with serum preoteins, especially with some biologically active proteins. J Pharm Pharmacol Res 20:169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sakat S, Juvekar AR, Gambhire MN (2010) In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn. Ind J Phar Pharmacol Sci 2(1):146–155Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pharmacognosy DivisionCSIR-National Botanical Research InstituteLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations