Total Phenolics, Tannins and Antioxidant Activity in Twenty Different Apple Cultivars Growing in West Himalaya, India

  • Amit Bahukhandi
  • Praveen Dhyani
  • Arun K. Jugran
  • Indra D. BhattEmail author
  • Ranbeer S. Rawal
Research Article


The present study evaluated phenolics and antioxidant activities in fully ripened fruits of 20 different apple cultivars e.g., Royal Delicious, Fanny, Gale Gala, Esopus Spitzenburg, King David, Winter Banana, Buckinghum, Super Chief, Breven, Red Fuji, Organ Spur, Tompking County, Red Gold, Golden Spur, Vance Delicious, Red Delicious, Macintosh, Rymer, Bhura Delicious, and Richa Red growing at different locations/elevations of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya, India. Total phenolics and tannins varied significantly among cultivars and the maximum content was recorded in Bhura Delicious (phenolics—3.77 mg GAE/g fw; tannins—16.47 mg TAE/g fw) as compared to others. Antioxidant activity using different in vitro assays showed highest activity in Bhura Delicious and lowest in Esopus Spitzenburg. A significant (p < 0.001) positive relationship was found between total phenolics and ABTS (r = 0.816), FRAP (r = 0.797) and DPPH (r = 0.862) assays. Phenolics and antioxidant activity exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher content in the peel as compared to whole fruit and flesh portion. Based on the results, it is concluded that Bhura Delicious is one of the promising sources of phenolics and antioxidant activity and, therefore, recommended for large scale plantation to harness its potential.


Phenolics Tannins Antioxidant activity Apple 



The authors thank Director GBPNIHESD for facilities and encouragement. They also thank colleagues of Biodiversity Conservation and Management Thematic group for support and help. Partial financial support from Department of Biotechnology, India (Project No: BT/PR11040/PBD/16/812/2008) is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declares that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Bahukhandi
    • 1
  • Praveen Dhyani
    • 1
  • Arun K. Jugran
    • 1
  • Indra D. Bhatt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ranbeer S. Rawal
    • 1
  1. 1.G. B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentKosi-Katarmal, AlmoraIndia

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