Detection of Chromosomal AmpC, bla CTX-M in Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli in Seafood Processing Effluent

  • G. K. SivaramanEmail author
  • Deesha Vanik
  • M. M. Prasad
  • S. Visnuvinayagam
  • K. A. Basha
  • R. K. Nadella
  • A. K. Jha
  • Chandni Vaja
Research Article


The higher incidence of extended spectrum of beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) in various community triggers to investigate the ESBL prevalence in seafood and its environment. A total of 24 fish processing effluent samples were collected fortnightly during January 2015–Dec 2015 and screened for ESBL producing E. coli. Twenty-eight E. coli strains were subjected to antibiogram and minimum inhibitory concentration. The ESBL production was tested using ready-made Brilliance ESBL agar (# PO5302, Oxoid) and ready to use minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) strips, Triple ESBL detection Ezy MIC™ strip and ESBL and AmpC detection strip. Out of 28 isolates, four isolates of E. coli were confirmed as ESBL producers and expressed resistance to antimicrobial agents like Cefuroxime, Amoxyclav, Ceftizoxime, Cefotaxime and Cefoperazone. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay confirmed the genes responsible for resistance were bla CTX-M families (592 bp) and Chromosomal AmpC (191 bp). The CTX-M genes have the ability to hydrolyze the Cefotoxime and Ceftazidime antimicrobials and are currently one of the largest groups of beta-lactamases. AmpC gene can be chromosomal or plasmid mediated and confers resistance to Cephalothin, Cefazolin, Cefoxitin and it also mediates resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors. The present investigation shows proliferation of clinically evolved multi drug resistant bacteria such as ESBL producing E. coli into non clinical settings such as fisheries. It is further suggested that fecal contamination as well as unhygienic treatment of fish processing waste followed by disposal to the surrounding environment may act as the potential source of contamination.


Cephalosporin Escherichia coli Extended spectrum beta lactamase Multidrug resistant Effluent Seafood 



The authors are thankful to the Director, ICAR- CIFT, Cochin, Kerala for providing the necessary facilities and fund to carry out this research work. We duly acknowledge the lab work assisted by the technical and supporting staff of the Centre. It’s further stating that all persons who meet authorship criteria are listed as authors, and all authors certify that they have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content, including participation in the concept, design, analysis, writing, or revision of the manuscript. Furthermore, each author certifies that this material or similar material has not been and will not be submitted to or published in any other publication. The work presented in the article has been carried out in an ethical way.

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Conflict of interest

It’s further stating that all persons who meet authorship criteria are listed as authors, and all authors certify that they have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content, including participation in the concept, design, analysis, writing, or revision of the manuscript. Furthermore, each author certifies that this material or similar material has not been and will not be submitted to or published in any other publication.The authors whose names are listed in the manuscript certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. K. Sivaraman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Deesha Vanik
    • 1
  • M. M. Prasad
    • 2
  • S. Visnuvinayagam
    • 3
  • K. A. Basha
    • 2
  • R. K. Nadella
    • 2
  • A. K. Jha
    • 1
  • Chandni Vaja
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Veraval Regional Centre of Central Institute of Fisheries TechnologyVeravalIndia
  2. 2.MFB DivisionICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries TechnologyCochinIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-Mumbai Research Centre of Central Institute of Fisheries TechnologyVashi, Navi MumbaiIndia

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