Advertisement

Detection of Chromosomal AmpC, bla CTX-M in Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli in Seafood Processing Effluent

  • G. K. Sivaraman
  • Deesha Vanik
  • M. M. Prasad
  • S. Visnuvinayagam
  • K. A. Basha
  • R. K. Nadella
  • A. K. Jha
  • Chandni Vaja
Research Article

Abstract

The higher incidence of extended spectrum of beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) in various community triggers to investigate the ESBL prevalence in seafood and its environment. A total of 24 fish processing effluent samples were collected fortnightly during January 2015–Dec 2015 and screened for ESBL producing E. coli. Twenty-eight E. coli strains were subjected to antibiogram and minimum inhibitory concentration. The ESBL production was tested using ready-made Brilliance ESBL agar (# PO5302, Oxoid) and ready to use minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) strips, Triple ESBL detection Ezy MIC™ strip and ESBL and AmpC detection strip. Out of 28 isolates, four isolates of E. coli were confirmed as ESBL producers and expressed resistance to antimicrobial agents like Cefuroxime, Amoxyclav, Ceftizoxime, Cefotaxime and Cefoperazone. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay confirmed the genes responsible for resistance were bla CTX-M families (592 bp) and Chromosomal AmpC (191 bp). The CTX-M genes have the ability to hydrolyze the Cefotoxime and Ceftazidime antimicrobials and are currently one of the largest groups of beta-lactamases. AmpC gene can be chromosomal or plasmid mediated and confers resistance to Cephalothin, Cefazolin, Cefoxitin and it also mediates resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors. The present investigation shows proliferation of clinically evolved multi drug resistant bacteria such as ESBL producing E. coli into non clinical settings such as fisheries. It is further suggested that fecal contamination as well as unhygienic treatment of fish processing waste followed by disposal to the surrounding environment may act as the potential source of contamination.

Keywords

Cephalosporin Escherichia coli Extended spectrum beta lactamase Multidrug resistant Effluent Seafood 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Director, ICAR- CIFT, Cochin, Kerala for providing the necessary facilities and fund to carry out this research work. We duly acknowledge the lab work assisted by the technical and supporting staff of the Centre. It’s further stating that all persons who meet authorship criteria are listed as authors, and all authors certify that they have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content, including participation in the concept, design, analysis, writing, or revision of the manuscript. Furthermore, each author certifies that this material or similar material has not been and will not be submitted to or published in any other publication. The work presented in the article has been carried out in an ethical way.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

It’s further stating that all persons who meet authorship criteria are listed as authors, and all authors certify that they have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content, including participation in the concept, design, analysis, writing, or revision of the manuscript. Furthermore, each author certifies that this material or similar material has not been and will not be submitted to or published in any other publication.The authors whose names are listed in the manuscript certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    WHO (World Health Organization) (2014) Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance 2014. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Magdalena NI, Roger S (2016) Epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- producing Escherichia coli in the human-livestock environment. Curr Clin Microbiol Rep 3:1–9. doi: 10.1007/s40588-016-0027-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Manoharan A, Premalatha K, Chatterjee S, Mathai D, SARI Study Group (2011) Correlation of TEM, SHV and extended-spectrum beta lactamases among Entrobacteriaceae with their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Indian J Med Microbiol 29(2):161–164. doi: 10.4103/0255-0857.81799 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bradford PA (2001) Extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the 21st century: characterization, epidemiology, and detection of this important resistance threat. Clin Microbiol Rev 14(4):933–951. doi: 10.1128/CMR.14.4.933-951.2001 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kumar D, Singh AK, Mohammad RA, Chander Y (2014) Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli from various clinical samples. Infect Dis 7:1–8Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    European centre for disease prevention and control (2010) Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2009. In: Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). ECDC, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sharma J, Sharma M, Ray P (2009) Detection of TEM & SHV genes in Escherichia coli & Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in a tertiary care hospital from India. Indian J Med Res 132:332–336Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rayamajhi N, Kang SG, Lee DY, Kang ML, Lee SI, Park KY, Lee HS, Yoo HS (2008) Characterization of TEM-, SHV- and AmpC-type β-lactamases from cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from swine. Int J Food Microbiol 124:183–187. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.03.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dierikx et al (2012) Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum- β lactamase-and AmpC-producing clinical isolates derived from companion animals and hourses. J Antimicrob Chemother 67(6):1368–1374. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks049 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manoharan et al (2012) Phenotypic and molecular characterization of AmpC β-lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacters from five Indian medical centers. Indian J Med Res 135:359–364PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abraham et al (2015) First detection of extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in Australian food-producing animals. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 3:273–277. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2015.08.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kang HY, Jeong YS, Oh JH (2005) Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons found in Escherichia coli isolates from humans and animals in Korea hospital prevalence and susceptibility patterns. Rev Infect Dis 10(4):867–878Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Koo HJ, Woo GJ (2011) Distribution and transferability of tetracycline resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolated from meat and meat products. Int J Food Microbiol 145:407–413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    CLSI (2014) Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty- fourth informational supplement. In: CLSI document M 100-S25, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PAGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dallene C, Costa AD, Decre D, Favier C, Arlet G (2010) Development of a set of multiplex PCR assays for the detection of genes encoding important β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother 65:490–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Caroff N, Espaze E, Berard I, Richet H, Reynaud A (1999) Mutations in the ampC promoter of Escherichia coli isolates resistant to oxyiminocephalosporins without extended spectrum b-lactamase production. FEMS Microbiol Lett 173:459–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schaufler K, Bethe A, Lubke-Becker A, Ewers C, Kohn B, Wieler LH, Guenther S (2015) Putative connection between zoonotic multi resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in dog feces from a veterinary campus and clinical isolates from dogs. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. doi: 10.3402/iee.v5.25334 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jiang HX, Tang D, Liu YH, Zhang XH, Zeng ZL, Xu L, Hawkey PM (2012) Prevalence and characteristics of β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from farmed fish in China. J Antimicrob Chemother 67:2350–2353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sun Y, Zeng Z, Chen S, Ma J, He L, Liu Y, Deng Y, Lei T, Zhao J, Liu JH (2010) High prevalence of bla CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli isolates from pets and emergence of CTX-M-64 in China. Clin Microbiol Infect 16:1475–1481. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03127.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Horton et al (2011) Fecal carriage and shedding density of CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in cattle, chickens, and pigs: implications for environmental contamination and food production. Appl Environ Microbiol 77(11):3715–3719. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02831-10 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    George EA, Sankar S, Jesudasan MV, Sudandiradoss C, Nandagopal B (2015) Molecular characterization of CTX-M type extended spectrum beta lactamase producing E coli isolated from humans and the environment. Indian J Med Microbiol 33(5):73–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ahmed OI, El-Hady SA, Ahmed TM, Ahmed IZ (2013) Detection of bla SHV and CTX-M genes in ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from Egyptian patients with suspected nosocomial infections. Egypt J Med Hum Genet 14:1475–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Branger C, Zamfir O, Geoffroy S, Laurans G, Arlet G, Thein HV, Gouriou S, Picard B, Denamur E (2013) Genetic background of Escherichia coli and extended spectrum β-lactamase type. Emerg Infect Dis 11(1):54–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wani KA, Thakur MA, Fayaz AS, Fomdia B, Gulnaz B, Maroof P (2009) Extended spectrum β-lactamase mediated resistance in Escherichia coli in a Tertiary care hospital. Int J Health Sci 3(2):155–163Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Galvin S, Boyle F, Hickey P, Vellinga A, Morris D, Cormica M (2010) Enumeration and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Eshcherichia coli bacteria in effluent from municipal, hospital, and secondary treatment facility sources. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:4772–4779CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rath S, Dubey D, Sahu MC, Padhy RN (2014) Surveillance of ESBL producing multidrug resistant Escherichia coli in a teaching hospital in India. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 4(2):140–149. doi: 10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60331-5 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ghafur AK (2010) An obituary-on the death of antibiotics! J Assoc Physician India 58:143–144Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kumarasamy et al (2010) Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study. Lacent Infect Dis 10:597–602. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70143-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Egea et al (2012) Increased raw poultry meat colonization by extended spectrum beta- lactamase- producing Escherichia coli in the South of Spain. Int J Food Microbiol 159(2):69–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Elhadi N, Alsamman K (2015) Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended-spectrum- β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from retail imported mackerel fish. Afr J Biotechnol 14(23):1954–1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Somily AM, Habib HA, Absar MM, Arshad MZ, Manneh K, Al Subaie SS, Al Hedaithy MA, Sayyed SB, Shakoor Z, Murray TS (2014) ESBL- producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Dev Ctries 8(9):1129–1136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. K. Sivaraman
    • 1
  • Deesha Vanik
    • 1
  • M. M. Prasad
    • 2
  • S. Visnuvinayagam
    • 3
  • K. A. Basha
    • 2
  • R. K. Nadella
    • 2
  • A. K. Jha
    • 1
  • Chandni Vaja
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Veraval Regional Centre of Central Institute of Fisheries TechnologyVeravalIndia
  2. 2.MFB DivisionICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries TechnologyCochinIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-Mumbai Research Centre of Central Institute of Fisheries TechnologyVashi, Navi MumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations