Optimal Conditions for the Treatment of Shrimp Culture Effluent Using Immobilized Marine Microalga Picochlorum maculatum (PSDK01)

  • S. Dinesh Kumar
  • P. SanthanamEmail author
  • P. Prabhavathi
  • B. Kanimozhi
  • M. Abirami
  • Min S. Park
  • Mi-Kyung Kim
Research Article


A significant environmental concern has been raised over the wastewater produced from aquaculture including shrimp farms. In order to evaluate the potential of microalgae to treat the wastewater from a shrimp aquaculture, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to identify optimal conditions for various parameters. Picochlorum maculatum immobilized beads were used to remove excessive nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia) from a 90 days old shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) cultured wastewater. The effects of number of algal cells per bead, density of beads per given volume of wastewater, pH, and retention time were investigated. A significant maximum nutrient removal was obtained at pH 7, 24 h of retention time, 150 beads of density and 111,200 cells/ml of algal cell concentration. The primary experimental results were used to RSM for optimizing the variables statistically for maximum nutrient removal. A ‘minimum run resolution V’ central composite design with four variables (pH and retention time, different bead density and algal cell concentrations in beads) was applied to optimize the process. The results showed good fits with the proposed statistical model for the removal of nutrients.


Wastewater treatment Shrimp culture Beads Immobilization Picochlorum maculatum Response surface methodology 



The authors are thankful to the Head, Department of Marine Science and authorities of Bharathidasan University for the facilities provided. They (SDK, PS) are indebted to Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for microalgae culture facility provided through extramural project (BT/PR 5856/AAQ/3/598/2012). One of the authors (SDK) thanks the DBT, Govt. of India for Junior Research Fellowship.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest among the authors for publishing this manuscript.

Supplementary material

40011_2017_855_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1084 kb)


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Copyright information

© The National Academy of Sciences, India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Dinesh Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Santhanam
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Prabhavathi
    • 3
  • B. Kanimozhi
    • 4
  • M. Abirami
    • 4
  • Min S. Park
    • 5
  • Mi-Kyung Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.Marine Planktonology and Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.MCK Biotech Co. LtdDaegu R&D Fusion CenterDaeguSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyNadar Saraswathi College of Arts and ScienceTheniIndia
  4. 4.PG and Research Department of MicrobiologyPSG College of Arts and ScienceCoimbatoreIndia
  5. 5.Center for Microalgal Technology and Biofuels, Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of ScienceWuhanChina

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