Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 259–270 | Cite as

Formulation and evaluation of spray dried liposomes of lopinavir for topical application

  • Mithun G. ManiyarEmail author
  • Chandrakant R. Kokare
Original Article


The anti-HIV therapy is the most capable disease management approach for HIV-AIDS, but its purpose could not fulfill to get maximum bioavailability. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop lopinavir–loaded phospholipid vesicles by using the spray-drying method. Lopinavir loaded spray-dried powder (L-SDP) has been transformed into the vesicles and characterized for physico-chemical properties. Penetration enhancers (PEs) containing cream have been formulated to deliver L-SDP through the skin. Vesicle showed globular shape, 270 nm particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) 0.239, − 34.34 mV zeta potential with 56.38 ± 1.24% entrapment efficiency. In-vitro drug release (%) study through a cellophane membrane showed extended drug release of drug from liposomal formulations in contrast to hydro-alcoholic drug solution (HAS), which released most of the drug within 3–4 h and higher drug release than drug cream. The penetration enhancers (PEs) were selected after investigating their ability to enhance membrane fluidity by FTIR, which showed encouraging outcomes. L-SDP cream with PEs subjected for ex-vivo drug release and skin deposition study using goat facial skins. The cream showed superior drug deposition as well as drug release. The cream containing peppermint oil showed tenfold higher (57.2%) than drug cream (5.91%) and olive oil showed 44.9% drug release.

Graphical abstract


Lopinavir Liposomes Spray-dried Ex-vivo drug release Skin deposition 



The authors are grateful to Emcure Pharmaceuticals, Ahmadabad and Lipoid GmbH, Germany for generously providing the gift samples of Lopinavir and phospholipon 85G®, respectively. Authors are indebted to Dr. S. D. Sawant, Principal, STES’s SKN College of Pharmacy, Kondhwa (Bk), Pune, Prof. Dr. B. P. Ronge, Founder Secretary, SVERI Pandharpur, and Dr. R. G. Kulkarni, Principal, SVERI’s College of Pharmacy, Pandharpur for providing facilities for this research work.


The authors confirm that no funding was granted for carrying out this research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human and animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.STES’s Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Pharmacy, Kondhwa (BK) (Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University)PuneIndia
  2. 2.SVERI’s College of PharmacyPandharpurIndia
  3. 3.STES’s Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Narhe (Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University)PuneIndia

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