Development of ethosomal vesicular carrier for topical application of griseofulvin: effect of ethanol concentration
- 82 Downloads
Vesicular carriers (VCs) offer enhanced and sustained delivery of drugs. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of ethanol concentration in VCs on topical delivery of a poorly water-soluble drug, using griseofulvin as prototype. VCs containing varying quantities of ethanol were prepared by solvent evaporation using Phospholipon® 90H (P90H) and characterized for entrapment efficiency (EE), morphology, size and size distribution, stability, viscosity and skin retention. Permeation profiles were assessed using rat skin and Franz diffusion cell and withdrawn samples analyzed spectrophotometrically. Spherical vesicles of average size of 137.70 ± 51.62 nm and polydipersity index of 0.555 were produced. Vesicle sizes decreased with increase in ethanol concentration. EE of 68.0 ± 5.6% was obtained for the optimized formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated reversible perturbation of the skin layers as the mechanism of permeation. Permeation generally increased with increase in ethanol concentration. Ethosomal nanovesicular carriers encapsulating griseofulvin were formulated, which showed potentials for sustained and enhanced delivery through rat skin in direct proportion with ethanol concentration.
KeywordsVesicular carriers Ethosomes Nanotechnology Characterization of vesicular carriers Enhanced delivery Griseofulvin
We thank NIPRD, Abuja and Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), Abuja, Nigeria for some of the facilities utilized in this research work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Declaration of conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest in this research work. No sponsorship was received in carrying out this work and while preparing the article.
Research involving human and animal participants
No human subjects were used for this study. All the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed in accordance with the ethical procedures of NIPRD, Abuja, Nigeria (Number: 05:3:06), in line with the National Institute of Health guidelines, as revised, 1985, for handling of laboratory animals.
- Aulton ME (1999) Pharmaceutics: the science of dosage form design. Ist edn. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
- Brookfield Engineering Labs Inc (2014) More solutions to sticky problems: a guide to getting MORE from your Brookfield Viscometers 1–50. http://www.brookfieldengineering.com/education/viscosity_whymeasure.asp. Accessed 28 Feb 2014
- Carter SJ (1987) Jellies formulation: sodium alginate. In: Cooper and gun’s dispensing for pharmaceutical students, 12th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 214–218Google Scholar
- Goodman M, Barry BW (1989) Action of penetration enhancers on human stratum corneum as assessed by differential scanning calorimetry. In: Bronaugh RL, Maibach HI (eds) Percutaneous absorption, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 567–595Google Scholar
- Lipoid GmbH (2017) Phospholipids. www.lipoid.com/en/phospholipids. Accessed 3 Nov 2017
- Martin A, Swarbrick J, Cammarata A (1983) Physical pharmacy, 3rd edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 445–468Google Scholar
- Merck Index (1989) Stearic, oleic and linoleic acids, 11th edn. 1107, 1192, 1319. Merck & Co., Inc., New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- Nguyen CA, Konan-Kouakou YN, Allemann E, Doelker E, Quintanar-Guerrero D, Fessi H, Gurny R (2006) Preparation of surfactant-free nanoparticles of methacrylic acid copolymers used for film coating. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 7(3):63. http://www.aapspharmscitech.org
- Semete-Makokotlela B, Kalombo L, Hayeshi R, Swai H (2011) Nanomedicine for improved efficacy of tuberculosis drugs. 4th ANDI Stakeholders Meeting 24–28 Oct., Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
- Shivanand P, Manish G, Viral D, Jarina F (2009) Transferosomes: a novel approach for transdermal drug delivery. Der Pharm Lett 1(2):143–150. http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html
- Touitou E (1996) Composition of applying active substances to or through the skin. US Patent, 5,716,638Google Scholar
- United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) 26 (2003) Asian ed., United States Pharmacopoeial Convention, Inc, Pharmacopoeia Rockville, p 875Google Scholar
- Williams A (2003) Transdermal and topical drug delivery, 1st edn. Pharmaceutical Press, LondonGoogle Scholar