Influence of Wheat Establishment Techniques and Previous Kharif Season Crops on Productivity, Profitability, Water Use Efficiency, Energy Indices and Soil Properties in Central India

  • Y. P. SinghEmail author
  • Sudhir Singh
  • Anil Kumar Singh
  • Bhawani Panwar
Full-Length Research Article


A three-year field study was conducted to explore the efficacy of wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop establishment techniques comprising conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), zero tillage (ZT) and broad bed furrow (BBF) after harvest of kharif (rainy) season crops of paddy (Oryza sativa), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucam) and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Pooled data showed that yield attributing characters and grain yield of wheat were significantly higher which was recorded under BBF followed by ZT, CT ≈ MT. Likewise significantly, higher grain yield was recorded after harvest of pigeon pea followed by pearl millet, paddy and cluster bean, respectively. Grain yield of wheat grown after previous kharif season crops was significantly higher under BBF after harvest of paddy, pigeon pea and pearl millet, whereas ZT proved to be better after harvest of cluster bean. The study revealed that BBF method saved maximum of US$ 101 ha−1 followed by ZT (US$ 76 ha−1) and MT (US$ 43 ha−1) as compared with total cost of production under CT (US$ 497 ha−1). Net return was higher by 199 US$ ha−1 with BBF and US$ 156 ha−1 with ZT compared with CT (US$ 844 ha−1). Total water use by wheat was higher after cluster bean (38.6 cm) and least after paddy (35.7 cm). Total water use by wheat establishment techniques was 10.6 cm and 2.7 cm higher under CT compared with BBF and ZT, respectively. The delayed establishment of wheat after CT required more energy, while timely sown crop needed less energy and produced more energy, use efficiency and productivity of energy. After harvest of third crop of wheat, physicochemical properties significantly improved sown after pigeon pea compared to other kharif season crops. The overall improvement of physicochemical properties under BBF followed by ZT compared with MT and CT.


Energy indices Productivity Kharif season crops Soil properties Water use Wheat establishment Conventional tillage  Zero tillage  Paddy  Oryza sativa  Pigeon pea  Cajanus cajan  Pearl millet Pennisetum glaucam  Cluster bean  Cyamopsis tetragonoloba 



Authors sincerely thank the staff of the KVK, Morena (R.V.S. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya) for their help in smooth conduct of laboratory and innovative farmers of Jigani village, Morena, India, for conducting experimental work. Thanks are also due to Indian Council of Agricultural Research for funding through NICRA project and Dr. G. P. Verma for support the initial review the draft.


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Copyright information

© NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. P. Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sudhir Singh
    • 2
  • Anil Kumar Singh
    • 3
  • Bhawani Panwar
    • 2
  1. 1.AICRP-IWMR.V.S. Krishi Vishwa VidyalayaMorenaIndia
  2. 2.COAR.V.S. Krishi Vishwa VidyalayaGwaliorIndia
  3. 3.R.V.S. Krishi Vishwa VidyalayaGwaliorIndia

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