Late Complications of Allogenic Stem Cells Transplantation in Leukaemia

  • Sharmilla KanagasundramEmail author
  • Farhanaz Amini
Review Article



Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) can cure leukaemia. However, long term complications of post transplantation interfere with the patients’ full recovery. The objective of this review was to identify the various long term complications and to assess their individual prevalences.


Electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane were searched for years 2004–2017. The keywords used were leukaemia, allogenic stem cell transplantation, prevalence, side effects, long term, delayed, adverse effects, complications and outcome.


A total of ten articles were included for analysis. There were 5 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 2 cross sectional studies. A total of 40,069 patients, (20,189 males and 17,191 females) participated in these 10 studies. The gender of 2689 patients were not disclosed. Most common late complications and prevalence were chronic graft versus host disease (43% at 5 years post HSCT), secondary tumor (21% at 20 years post HSCT), hypothyroidism (11% at 15 years), bronchiolitis obliterans (9.7% at 122 days), cardiovascular disease (7.5% at 15 years) and avascular necrosis (5.4% at 10 years). The prevalence of azoospermia was 71.1% and depression, 18%. For the latter two conditions no time limit was available. Follow up duration ranged from 2 years till 30 years post HSCT.


While allogenic stem cell transplantation is an effective cure for leukaemia, the procedure is associated with complications that can have their onset many years after the procedure.


Allogenic stem cells Chronic graft Late complications Leukaemia 


Author’s contribution

Associate Professor Dr. Sharmilla Kanagasundram acquisition, interpretation and analysis, drafting article and revising it for intellectual content. Associate Professor Farhanaz Amini concept and design of study and revising it for intellectual content.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical statement

There are no animal experiments carried out for this article.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Healthy Aging, Medical Aesthetics and Regenerative MedicineUniversity College Sedaya International (UCSI)Kuala LumpurMalaysia

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