Fe-modified hydrochar from orange peel as adsorbent of food colorant Brilliant Black: process optimization and kinetic studies
- 43 Downloads
The main aims of this work were to produce and characterize Fe-modified hydrochar from orange peel waste, optimize the adsorption through response surface methodology, investigate the role of treatment time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature, and determine the dominant mechanisms through kinetics analysis. Orange peel waste was hydrothermally carbonized at 200 °C for 8 h, and the hydrochar was embedded with magnetite nanoparticles. The composite adsorbent was characterized through spectrometric and surface analytical methods. Subsequently, analysis of variance was used to design the experimental runs, propose a polynomial equation describing the adsorption process and finally optimize the adsorption conditions. The results indicated that 99% removal can be theoretically achieved at the following conditions: dye initial concentration of 6.08 mg/L, treatment time of 26.30 min, temperature of 44.79 °C and adsorbent concentration of 2.27 g/L. The dominant factors were the dye and adsorbent concentration, whereas time and temperature variations had a much lesser impact. Among examined models, the Langmuir model showed a better match to the experimental data. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was determined as 10.49 mg/g. The mechanism of interaction was largely based on surface chemisorption between the dye and adsorbent. Fe-modified hydrochar exhibited a positive adsorption behavior, and it was shown that a new valorization option for orange peel waste is available. This option may follow other valorization pathways, such as isolation of biologically active molecules, therefore offering a complete solution to this type of waste.
KeywordsAdsorption Agricultural waste Hydrochar Hydrothermal carbonization Orange peel waste
This work has been supported by the Research Fund of Aksaray University—Project Number 2017-042.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bagheri AR, Ghaedi M, Asfaram A, Bazrafshan AA, Jannesar R (2017) Comparative study on ultrasonic assisted adsorption of dyes from single system onto Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: experimental design methodology. Ultrason Sonochem 34:294–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.05.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Deepa K, Prasad C, Jyothi N, Naushad M, Rajendran S, Karlapudi S, Kumar SH (2018) Adsorptive removal of Pb(II) metal from aqueous medium using biogenically synthesized and magnetically recoverable core-shell structured AM@ Cu/Fe3O4 nano composite. Desalin Water Treat 111:278–285. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2018.22200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fernandez ME, Ledesma B, Román S, Bonelli PR, Cukierman AL (2015) Development and characterization of activated hydrochars from orange peels as potential adsorbents for emerging organic contaminants. Bioresour Technol 183:221–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Freundlich H (1906) Over the adsorption in solution. J Physical Chem 57:385–470Google Scholar
- Lagergren S (1898) About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances. K Sven Vetenskapsakad Handl 24:1–39Google Scholar
- Libra JA, Ro KS, Kammann C, Funke A, Berge ND, Neubauer Y, Titirici M-M, Fühner C, Bens O, Kern J, Emmerich K-H (2011) Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass residuals: a comparative review of the chemistry, processes and applications of wet and dry pyrolysis. Biofuels 2(1):89–124. https://doi.org/10.4155/BFS.10.81 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Naushad M, Al-Othman ZA (2015) Separation of toxic Pb2+ metal from aqueous solution using strongly acidic cation-exchange resin: analytical applications for the removal of metal ions from pharmaceutical formulation. Desalin Water Treat 53:2158–2166. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.862744 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Naushad M, Al-Othman ZA, Rabiul Awual M, Alfadul SM, Ahamad T (2016a) Adsorption of rose Bengal dye from aqueous solution by amberlite Ira-938 resin: kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies. Desalin Water Treat 57:13527–13533. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1060169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Naushad M, Vasudevan S, Sharma G, Kumar A, Al-Othman Z (2016b) Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies for Hg2+ adsorption from aqueous medium using alizarin red-S-loaded amberlite IRA-400 resin. Desalin Water Treat 57:18551–18559. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1090914 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Naushad M, Ahamad T, Sharma G, Al-Muhtaseb AH, Albadarin AB, Alam MM, Al-Othman ZA, Alshehri SM, Ghfar AA (2016c) Synthesis and characterization of a new starch/SnO2 nanocomposite for efficient adsorption of toxic Hg2+ metal ion. Chem Eng J 300:306–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.04.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Naushad M, Ahamad T, Al-Maswari BM, Abdullah Alqadami A, Alshehri SM (2017) Nickel ferrite bearing nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon as efficient adsorbent for the removal of highly toxic metal ion from aqueous medium. Chem Eng J 330:1351–1360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.08.079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Quesada-Plata F, Ruiz-Rosas R, Morallón E, Cazorla-Amorós D (2016) Activated carbons prepared through H3PO4-assisted hydrothermal carbonisation from biomass wastes: porous texture and electrochemical performance. ChemPlusChem 81:1349–1359. https://doi.org/10.1002/cplu.201600412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sharma G, Naushad M, Kumar A, Rana S, Sharma S, Bhatnagar A, Stadler FJ, Ghfar AA, Khan MR (2017) Efficient removal of coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye using starch/poly(alginic acid-cl-acrylamide) nanohydrogel. Process Saf Environ 109:301–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2017.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Simsir H, Eltugral N, Karagoz S (2017) Hydrothermal carbonization for the preparation of hydrochars from glucose, cellulose, chitin, chitosan and wood chips via low-temperature and their characterization. Bioresour Technol 246:82–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.07.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sivarajasekar N, Baskar R (2015) Agriculture waste biomass valorisation for cationic dyes sequestration: a concise review. J Chem Pharm Res 7:737–748Google Scholar
- Weber WJ, Morris JC (1963) Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution. J Sanit Eng Div 89(2):31–60Google Scholar