Monitoring sources, discharges, and fluxes of, and assessing the risks from, pesticides in the Kurose and Ashida Rivers, Japan

  • A. Derbalah
  • K. Tahara
  • H. SakugawaEmail author
Original Paper


Because pesticide-contaminated water can harm living organisms, pesticide residues need to be monitored, their sources need to be identified, and the risks they pose should be assessed. In this study, the sources, fluxes, and discharges of, and risks from, pesticides were monitored and assessed during the rice-growing season (from April to October) in the Kurose and Ashida Rivers in Hiroshima, Japan. Water samples were collected monthly, subjected to solid-phase extraction, and then analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the presence and concentrations of pesticides. The fluxes of the detected pesticides were also estimated at each site in the Kurose and Ashida rivers, and the discharges of these pesticides from different sources were determined. The potential ecotoxicological risks from the detected pesticides to the aquatic systems were also evaluated. Thirteen pesticides were detected in the Kurose River. Of these, the mean concentrations of diroun (970 ng/L) and butamifos (4.7 ng/L) were the highest and the lowest, respectively. Eleven compounds were detected in the Ashida River. Again, the mean concentration of diuron (860 ng/L) was the highest, while that of flutolanil (5.5 ng/L) was the lowest. The pesticide fluxes were the highest in the Ashida and Kurose Rivers in October and May, respectively. The main sources of pesticide discharges were rice paddies, orchards, and vegetable fields. The results of the ecotoxicological risk assessment indicated that fenitrothion, diuron, dichlorvos, and benthiocarb posed high risks to the aquatic environment in the Ashida and Kurose Rivers.


Monitoring Discharge source Runoff load River Risk assessment Pesticides 



This work was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI with a Grant Number of 16KT0149. The authors are grateful to Dr. Kazuhiko Takeda, Associate Professor in Hiroshima University, for kindly helping with measuring water quality parameters. We thank Jeremy Kamen, MSc, and Deborah Ballantine, PhD from Edanz Group ( for editing a draft of this manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Biosphere ScienceHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Pesticides Chemistry and Toxicology Department, Faculty of AgricultureKafrelsheikh UniversityKafrelsheikhEgypt

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