Advertisement

Heavy metals occurrence, assessment and distribution in water resources of the lead–zinc mining areas of Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria

  • P. N. ObasiEmail author
  • B. E. B. Akudinobi
Original Paper
  • 26 Downloads

Abstract

The assessment, occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in water resources of the lead–zinc mining areas of Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria, were carried out. Major communities including Enyigba, Mkpuma Akpatakpa, Ameka, Amorie, Amanchara and Alibaruhu where active and abandoned mines are located were assessed. This study compared the prevalence of these metals in the different mining communities. One hundred and six water samples were analyzed in two seasons using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and Ultra-Violet/Visible Spectroscopy. Results were compared with World Health Organization Standard (WHO) for drinking water. Result indicates high concentrations with ranges: Mn2+ (63.45 mg/L), Pb2+ (11.42 mg/L), Cr3+ (14.60 mg/L), Ni2+ (1.260), Cd2+ (15.67 mg/L), Ag+ (6.06 mg/L), Hg2+ (2.60 mg/L), As (4.13 mg/L), Se2+ (2.68 mg/L), Zn2+ (10.53 mg/L), Co2+ (0.9 mg/L). These are above the WHO recommended standard for drinking water. Only Cu2+ and Se2+ recorded safe concentrations in 100% samples analyzed in both surface and groundwater in the rainy season. Percentage contamination shows Pb2+ > Hg2+ > As2+ > Cd2+ > Mn2+ > Ag2+ > Se2+ > Ni2+ > Cr2+>Cu2+especially in areas close to the active mines. Surface water resources recorded higher contamination. However, Pb2+, As, Hg2+, Se2+ and Cd2+ showed high percentage of contamination in groundwater samples. The Ameka and Mkpuma Akpatakpa mining areas recorded higher concentrations of the hydrogeochemical constituents than the Enyigba, Ameka and Amorie mining regions. Seasonal analysis shows a decreased concentration of chemical constituents in the rainy season relative to the dry season.

Keywords

Heavy metals Mining Environmental pollution Mine waste 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to Professor T.U. Onuegbu of Department of Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University for reviewing this paper in the early drafts. We also appreciate our past students who gainfully assisted in the collection of samples and laboratory analysis. We thank Ovu Samuel and Gideon Chukwu for typesetting and running some of the computer programs. The first author is grateful to Professor A. U. Okoro for his encouragements and mentorship.

References

  1. Abraham MR, Susan TB (2017) Water contamination with heavy metals and trace elements from Kilembe copper mine and tailing sites in Western Uganda; implications for domestic water quality. Chemosphere 169:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (1990) Toxicological profile for Copper U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology 1600, Atlanta, GA 30333Google Scholar
  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2003) Toxicological profile for Nickel U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology 1600, Atlanta, GA 30333Google Scholar
  4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2004) Toxicological profile for Cobalt.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology 1600, Atlanta, GA 30333Google Scholar
  5. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2005) Toxicological profile for Nickel U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology 1600, Atlanta, GA 30333Google Scholar
  6. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2007) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology 1600, Atlanta, GA 30333Google Scholar
  7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2009) Toxicological profile for mercury. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology 1600, Atlanta, GA 30333Google Scholar
  8. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2012) Toxicological profile for Chromium U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology 1600, Atlanta, GA 30333Google Scholar
  9. Almela C, Algora S, Benito V (2002) Heavy metal, total arsenic, and inorganic arsenic contents of algae food products. J Agric Food Chem 50:918–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Andreev G, Simenov V (1990) Distribution and correlation of elements in waters, suspensions, sediments and marine organisms from the Black Sea. Toxicol Environ Chem 28:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Andrews S, Sutherland RA (2004) Cu, Pb and Zn contamination in Nuuanu watershed, Oahu, Hawaii. Sci Total Environ 324(1–3):173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aremu DA, Olawuyi J, Meshitsuka S (2002) Heavy metal analysis of groundwater from Warri, Nigeria. Int J Environ Health Res 12:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Asaah VA, Abimbola AF, Suh CE (2006) Heavy metal concentration and distribution in surface soils of the Bassa industrial zone1, Douala, Cameroon. Arab J Sci Eng 31(2A):147–158Google Scholar
  14. Aschner M, Guilarte TR, Schneider JS (2007) Manganese: recent advances in understanding its transport and neurotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 221:131–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Autier V, White D (2004) Examination of cadmium sorption characteristics for a boreal soil near Fairbanks, Alaska. J Hazard Mater 106B:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ayandiran TA, Dahunsi SO (2016) Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from polluted Oluwa River, Nigeria. Environ Monit Assess 188:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ayandiran TA, Ayandele AA, Dahunsi SO, Ajala OO (2014) Microbial assessment and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in polluted Oluwa River, Nigeria. Egypt J Aquat Res 40:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ayandiran TA, Fawole OO, Dahunsi SO (2018) Water quality assessment of bitumen polluted Oluwa River, South-Western Nigeria. Water Resour Ind 19:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barbera R, Farre R, Mesado D (1991) Determination of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc in diets: development of a method. Nahrung 35(7):683–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barcan V (2002) Nature and origin of multicomponent aerial emissions of the copper-nickel smelter complex. Environ Int 28:451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Barceloux DG (1999) Zinc. Clin Toxicol 37(2):279–292Google Scholar
  22. Blowes D, Ptacek C, Jambor J, Weisener C (2003) The geochemistry of acid mine drainage. Treatise Geochem 9:149–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brikké F (2000) Operation and maintenance of rural water supply and sanitation systems: a training package for managers and planners. Delft, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre; and Geneva, World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  24. Burke KC, Dessawvagia RFJ, Whiteman AW (1972) Geology history of the Benue valley and adjacent area, Africa Geology, University of Ibadan Press. Geology 10(5):187–206Google Scholar
  25. Buzatu A, Dill H-G, Buzgar N, Damian G, Maftei A-E, Apopei A-I (2016) Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie Mining area (Romania)—acid mine drainage and climatological approach. Sci Total Environ 542:629–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cidu R, Frau F, Da Pelo S (2011) Drainage at Abandoned mine sites: natural attenuation of contaminants in different seasons. Mine Water Environ 30:113–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clewell HJ, Lawrence GA, Calne DB (2003) Determination of an occupational exposure guideline for manganese using the benchmark method. Risk Anal 23(5):1031–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dahunsi SO, Ayandiran TA, Oranusi US, Owamah HI (2014) Drinking water quality and public health of selected communities in South Western Nigeria. Water Qual Expo Health 6:143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davies BE, Bowman C, Davies TC, Sellinus O (2005) Medical geology: perspectives and prospects. Essent Med 10:1–14Google Scholar
  30. Dikinya O, Areola O (2010) Comparative analysis of heavy metal concentration in secondary treated waste irrigated soil cultivated by different crops. Int J Environ Sci Technol 7(2):337–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. El Amari K, Valera P, Hibti M, Pretti S, Marcello A, Essarraj S (2014) Impact of mine tailings on surrounding soils and ground water: case of Kettara old mine, Morocco. J Afr Earth Sci 100:437–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elinder CG (1985) Cadmium: uses, occurrence and intake. In: Friberg L, Elinder CG, Kjellström T (eds) Cadmium and health: a toxicological and epidemiological appraisal. Vol I. Exposure, dose, and metabolism. Effects and response. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 3–64Google Scholar
  33. Elinder CG (1992) Cadmium as an environmental hazard. IARC Sci Publ 118:123–132Google Scholar
  34. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1979) Water-related environmental fate of 129 priority pollutants. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Planning and Standards. (EPA) 440479029aGoogle Scholar
  35. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1984) Health assessment document for manganese. Final draft. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. (EPA) 600883013FGoogle Scholar
  36. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2003) Effluent guidelines and standards. General provisions. Toxic pollutants. Washington, DC, US EPA.40 CFR 401. 15Google Scholar
  37. Equeenuddin MD, Tripathy S, Saho PK, Panigrahi MK (2010) Hydrogeochemical characteristics of acid mine drainage and water pollution at Makum Coalfield, India. J Geochem Explor 105:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Essa (1999) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2007). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology 1600, Atlanta, GA 30333Google Scholar
  39. Farm Unit, Ebonyi State University (EBSU) (2009) Climatological Data of the Abakaliki Area (unpublished). (2009)Google Scholar
  40. Fergussion IE (1990) The heavy elements chemistry, environmental impact and health effects. Pergamon press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Freeze RA, Cherry JA (1976) Groundwater water assessment. Prentice- Hall Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp 248–261Google Scholar
  42. Fuhrer GJ (1986) Extractable cadmium, mercury, copper, lead, and zinc in the Lower Columbia Rover estuary, Oregon and Washington. In: U.S. geological survey water-resources investigations report. PortlandGoogle Scholar
  43. Gallagher CH (2001) Biochemical and pathological effects of copper deficiency. In: Nriagu JO (ed) Copper in the environment. Wiley, New York, pp 57–82Google Scholar
  44. Garvey GJ, Hahn G, Lee RV (2013) Heavy metal hazards of Asian traditional remedies. Int J Environ Health Res 11(1):63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gerhat JM, Blomquist JD (1992) Selected trace elements and organic contaminant in stream bed sediments of the potomac river Basin. In: Water resources investigation report, vol 95, No 4267. U.S. Geological Survey, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  46. Gilmour CC, Henry EA (1991) Mercury methylation in aquatic systems affected by acid deposition. Environ Pollut 71(2–4):131–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gundersen P, Steinnes E (2003) Influence of pH and TOC concentration on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Al speciation in rivers. Water Res 37:307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hakkou R, Benzaazoua M, Bussière B (2008) Acid mine drainage at the abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1 Environmental characterization. Mine Water Environ 27:145–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Han Y-S, Youm S-J, Oh C, Cho Y-C, Ahn J-S (2017) Geochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of stream water and its sediments affected by acid mine drainage. CATENA 148(1):52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Howard G, Bartram J (2003) Domestic water quantity, service level and health World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  51. Iloeje NP (1979) A new geography of Nigeria. Revised New Edition, pp 32–45Google Scholar
  52. Jardine PM, Fendorf SE, Mayes MA (1999) Fate and transport of hexavalent chromium in undisturbed heterogeneous soil. Environ Sci Technol 33(17):2939–2944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Khalil A, Hanich L, Bannari A, Zouhri L, Pourret O, Hakkou R (2013) Assessment of soil contamination around an abandoned mine in a semi-arid environment using geochemistry and geostatistics: pre-work of geochemical process modeling with numerical models. J Geochem Explor 125:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kimbrough DE, Cohen Y, Winer AM (1999) A critical assessment of chromium in the environment. Crit Rev Environ Sci 29(1):1–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kogbe CA (1976) Paleogeographic history of Nigeria from Albian times. In: Kogbe CA (ed) Geology of Nig. Elizabeth Publishers, Lagos, pp 237–252Google Scholar
  56. Koki IB, Bayero AS, Umar A, Yusuf S (2015) Health risk assessment of heavy metals in water, air, soil and fish. African J Pure Appl Chem 9(11):204–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Li Z, Zongwei M, Tsering JV, Zengwei Y, Lei H (2014) A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 468(469):843–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lindsay WL, Sadiq M (1979) Theoretical solubility relationships of silver in soils. In: Klein DA (ed) Environmental impacts of artificial ice nucleating agents. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Inc, StroudsburgGoogle Scholar
  59. Long ER, MacDonald DD, Smith SL, Calder FD (1995) Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environ Manage 19:81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lucassen E, Smolders AJP, Roelofs JGM (2002) Potential sensitivity of mines to drought, acidification and mobilization of heavy metals: the sediment S/Ca +Mg) ratio as diagnostic tool. Environ Pollut 120:635–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mann H, Fyfe WS, Kerrich R (1989) Retardation of toxic heavy metal dispersion from nickel-copper mine tailings, Sudbury district, Ontario: Role of acidophilic microorganisms. I. Biological pathway of metal retardation. Biorecovery 1:155–172. Mater 179:1065–1077Google Scholar
  62. Meili M (2013) The coupling of mercury and organic matter in the biogeochemical cycle - towards a mechanistic model for the boreal forest zone. Water Air Soil Pollut 56:333–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mohammad AH, Bhuiyan MA, Samuel BD, Parvez L, Shigeyuki S (2010) Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh. J Hazard Mater 179:1065–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moye J, Picard-Lesteven T, Zouhri L, El Amari K, Hibti M, Benkaddour A (2017) Groundwater assessment and environmental impact in the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco). Environ Pollut 231(Pt 1):899–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nnabo PN, Orazulike DM, Offor OC (2011) The preliminary assessment of the level of heavy elements contaminations in stream bed sediments of Enyigba and Environs, SE Nigeria. J Basic Phys Res 2(2):43–52Google Scholar
  66. Nriagu JO, Pacyna JM (1988) Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals. Nature 333:134–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nwachukwu SO (1975) Temperature of formation of vein, minerals in the south portion of the Benue Trough, Nigeria. J Min Geol 11(12):44–55Google Scholar
  68. Nwajide CS (2013) Geology of Nigeria’ s sedimentary basins. CSS Bookshops Limited, LagosGoogle Scholar
  69. Obaje GN (2009) Geology and mineral resources of Nigeria. Springer, Dord Heidelerg, London, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Obarezi JE, Nwosu JI (2013) Structural controls of Pb-Zn mineralization of Enyigba district, Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. J Geol Min 5(11):250–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Obasi PN (2017) Hydrogeological and geochemical assessment of the lead – zinc mining areas of abakaliki ebonyi state, Southeastern Nigeria. Unpublished Ph. D thesis. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  72. Obasi PN, Akudinobi BEB (2015) Geochemical assessment of heavy metal distribution and pollution status in soil/stream sediment in the Ameka Mining area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Afr J Geosci Res 3(4):01–07Google Scholar
  73. Obasi PN, Akudinobi BEB, Eyankware MO, Nweke OM (2015) Hydrochemical investigation of water resources around Mkpuma Ekwaoku mining district, Ebonyi State Southeastern Nigeria. Afr J Geosci Res 3(3):01–07Google Scholar
  74. Obiorah SC, Chukwu A, Toteu SF, Davies TC (2016) Assessment of Heavy metals Contamination in soils around Pb–Zn mining Areas in Enyigba, Southeastern Nigeria. J Geol Soc India 87:453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Obiorah SC, Chukwu A, Toteu SF, Davies TC (2018) Contamination of the potable water supply sources in the Lead-Zinc mining Communities of Enyigba, Southeastern Nigeria. Mine Water Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10230-018-0550-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Odoh BI, Utom AU, Nwaze SO (2012) Groundwater prospecting in fractured shale aquifer using an integrated suite of geophysical method: a case study from Presbyterian Church, Kpiri-kprir, Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria. J Geosci 01:5–6Google Scholar
  77. Pendias-Kabata A, Pendias H (1984) Trace elements in soil and plants, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  78. Robson M (2003) Methodologies for assessing exposures to metals: Human host factors. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 56:104–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Saleh FY, Parkerton TF, Lewis RV (1989) Kinetics of chromium transformations in the environment. Sci Total Environ 86:25–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sawyer R, Simpson-Hébert M, Wood S (1998) PHAST step-by-step guide: a participatory approach for the control of diarrhoeal disease. Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO/EOS/98.3)Google Scholar
  81. Schaanning M, Naes K, Egeberg PK (1988) Cycling of manganese in the permanently anoxic Drammens field. Mar Chem 23:365–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sheppard MI, Thibault DH (1991) A four-year mobility study of selected trace elements and heavy metals. J Environ Qual 20:101–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shuai-Long W, Xiang-Rong X, Yu-Xin S, Jin-Ling L, Hua-Bin L (2013) Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 76:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith IC, Carson BL (1977) Trace metals in the environment, vol 2. Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  85. Sparks DL (2005) Toxic metal in the environment: the role of surface. J Mineral Soc Am 1:193–197Google Scholar
  86. Stoessel R (2004) Environmental geochemistry notes of Ron Stoessel. http://www.ronstoessell.org/environmentalgeochemistry.htm
  87. Todd DK (1980) Groundwater hydrology, 2nd edn. Willey, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Umeji AC (2000) Evolution of the abakaliki and the anambra basins, Southeastern Nigeria. A report submitted to the shell petroleum development company, Nigeria Limited, p 155Google Scholar
  89. U.S. Bureau of Mines (1994) Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and 3rd international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage: U.S. Bureau of Mines. Special Publication, SP 06D-94Google Scholar
  90. Wang XL, Sato T, Xing BS, Tao S (2014) Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Sci Total Environ 350:28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. World Health Organization (WHO) (1984) Guidelines for drinking water quality. Geneva, pp 99–102Google Scholar
  92. World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) Guidelines for drinking water quality Third edition GenevaGoogle Scholar
  93. Yousefi M, Saleh HN, Mohammadi AA, Mahvi AH, Ghadrpoori M, Suleimani H (2017) Data on water quality index for the groundwater in rural area Neyshabur County, Razavi Province, Iran. Data Brief 15(2017):901–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zhao C, Hobbs BE, Ord A, Peng S, Mühlhaus HB, Liu L (2004) Theoretical investigation of convective instability in inclined and fluid-saturated three-dimensional fault zones. Tectonophysics 387:47–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zhao C, Hobbs BE, Ord A, Hornby P, Peng S, Liu L (2007) Mineral precipitation associated with vertical fault zones: the interaction of solute advection, diffusion and chemical kinetics. Geofluids 7:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zhao C, Hobbs BE, Ord A (2008a) Convective and advective heat transfer in geological systems. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhao C, Hobbs BE, Hornby P, Ord A, Peng S, Liu L (2008b) Theoretical and numerical analyses of chemical-dissolution front instability in fluid-saturated porous rocks. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 32:1107–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhao C, Hobbs BE, Ord A (2010) Theoretical analyses of nonaqueous-phase-liquid dissolution induced instability in two-dimensional fluid-saturated porous media. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 34:1767–1796CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyEbonyi State University AbakalikiAbakalikiNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesNnamdi Azikiwe UniversityAwkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations