Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under UV irradiation using Shorea robusta leaf extract-mediated bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles

  • W. A. Shaikh
  • S. ChakrabortyEmail author
  • R. U. Islam
Original Paper


In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by using Shorea robusta leaf extract was utilized for degrading synthetic anionic dye “rhodamine B” (RhB) in aqueous condition. The synthesis of colloidal AgNPs was optimized using UV–visible spectroscopy by varying the reaction parameters including reduction time, concentration of the precursor and dose of S. robusta leaf extract. The bio-synthesized AgNPs were characterized by FESEM coupled with EDX, AFM, TEM and XRD. FESEM image revealed spherical-shaped particles, and EDX confirmed the metallic form of the synthesized AgNPs. The TEM image result showed poly-dispersed, spherical-shaped AgNPs with particle size within 12–37 nm, while XRD analysis and SAED pattern revealed its crystallinity. Photocatalytic degradation of RhB using AgNPs was optimized by varying the initial concentration of RhB, reaction time, temperature and pH, where maximum photocatalytic degradation was found to be 90.41%. The degradation pathway followed second-order rate kinetics for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB with an excellent rate constant (k2 = 2.44 × 10−2 min−1). FTIR spectra of RhB before and after reaction with the AgNPs showed disappearance of characteristic peaks and formation of new significant peaks indicating photocatalytic degradation.


Bio-synthesis Synthetic dye Surface plasmon resonance Degradation kinetics Degradation mechanism 



The authors would like to acknowledge the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, for providing fellowship to the research scholar (F1-17.1/2017-18/MANF-2017-18-WES-81391/(SA-III/Website)). The authors would also like to express their sincere thanks to CIF, BIT, Mesra, and SAIF, IIT Bombay, for advanced analysis of samples for the study.


  1. Abdpour S, Kowsari E, Moghaddam MRA, Schmolke L, Janiak C (2018) Mil-100(Fe) nanoparticles supported on urchin like Bi2S3 structure for improving photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine-B dye under visible light irradiation. J Solid State Chem 266:54–62. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad N, Sharma S, Alam MK, Singh VN, Shamsi SF, Mehta BR, Fatma A (2010) Rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using dried medicinal plant of basil. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 81:81–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S (2016) A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: a green expertise. J Adv Res 7:17–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajitha B, Reddy YAK, Reddy PS (2014) Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosiapurpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity. Spectrochim Acta A 121:164–172. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ajitha B, Reddy YAK, Reddy PS (2015) Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Lantana camara leaf extract. Mater Sci Eng C 49:373–381. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ajitha B, Reddy YAK, Rajesh KM, Reddy PS (2016) Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: antimicrobial activity. Mater Today 3:1977–1984. Google Scholar
  7. Babu K, Rosaiah G (2017) A study on germination and seedling growth of Blcakgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) germplasm against Polyethylene glycol 6000 stress. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci 5:90–98. Google Scholar
  8. Bagtache B, Abdmeziem K, Dib K, Trari M (2018) Synthesis and photoelectrochemical characterization of KZn2(HPO4)PO4: application to rhodamine B photodegradation under solar light. Int J Environ Sci Technol. Google Scholar
  9. Bibi I, Nazar N, Iqbal M, Kamal S, Nawaz H, Nouren S, Safa Y, Jilani K, Sultan M, Ata S, Rehman F, Abbas M (2017) Green and eco-friendly synthesis of cobalt-oxide nanoparticle: characterization and photo-catalytic activity. Adv Powder Technol 28:2035–2043. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biju S, Fuentes S, Gupta D (2017) Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates drought stress in lentil crops by regulating osmolytes, hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant defense system. Plant Physiol Biochem 119:250–264. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bose D, Chatterjee S (2016) Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract and its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl Nanosci 6:895–901. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng ZL, Li YX, Liu Z (2017) Novel adsorption materials based on graphene oxide/Beta zeolite composite materials and their adsorption performance for rhodamine B. J Alloys Compd 708:255–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiou CS, Chen HW, Chen ZT (2017) Application of magnetic adsorbent with silicate and phenyl polymers to adsorb Rhodamine B. Int J Environ Sci Technol 15:1879–1886. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dhand V, Soumya L, Bharadwaj S, Chakra S, Bhatt D, Sreedhar B (2016) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coffea arabica seed extract and its antibacterial activity. Mater Sci Eng C 58:36–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dong C, Cao C, Zhang X, Zhan Y, Wang X, Yang X, Zhou K, Xiao X, Yuan B (2017) Wolfberry fruit (Lyciumbarbarum) extract mediated novel route for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Optik 130:162–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gavade NL, Kadam AN, Suwarnkar MB, Ghodake VP, Garadkar KM (2015) Biogenic synthesis of multi-applicative silver nanoparticles by using Ziziphus jujuba leaf extract. Spectrochim Acta A 136:953–960. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jiang XC, Chen WM, Chen CY, Xiong SX, Yu AB (2011) Role of temperature in the growth of silver nanoparticles through a synergetic reduction approach. Nanoscale Res Lett 6:32–40. Google Scholar
  18. Kaji T, Kawashima T, Yamamoto C, Sakamoto M (1992) Rhodamine B inhibits collagen synthesis by human lip fibroblasts in culture. Toxicol Lett 61:81–87. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Karthik R, Govindasamy M, Chen S, Cheng Y, Muthukrishnan P, Padmavathy S, Elangovan A (2017) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Camellia japonica leaf extract for the electrocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene and photocatalytic degradation of Eosin-Y. J Photochem Photobiol B 170:164–172. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khalil MMH, Ismail EH, El-Baghdady KZ, Mohamed D (2014) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using olive leaf extract and its antibacterial activity. Arab J Chem 7:1131–1139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khandare RV, Govindwar SP (2015) Phytoremediation of textile dyes and effluents: current scenario and future prospects. Biotechnol Adv 33:1697–1714. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lokesh G, Srivastava AK, Kar PK, Srivastava PP, Sinha AK, Sahay A (2016) Seasonal climatic influence on the leaf biochemicals of Sal (Shorea robusta) flora and in situ breeding behaviour of Lariaecorace of tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta Drury. J Entomol Zool Stud 4(6):57–62Google Scholar
  23. Low FCF, Wu TY, Teh CY, Juan JC, Balasubramanian N (2012) Investigation into photocatalytic decolorisation of CI Reactive Black 5 using titanium dioxide nanopowder. Color Technol 128(1):44–50. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mittal AK, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC (2013) Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts. Biotechnol Adv 31:346–356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mohammadghasemi-Samani S, Taghdiri M (2017) Facile synthesis of hexamine–silicotungstic acid hybrid and its photocatalytic activity toward degradation of dyes. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14:2093–2108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mohd Adnan MA, Julkapli NM, Amir MNI, Maamor A (2019) Effect on different TiO2 photocatalyst supports on photodecolorization of synthetic dyes: a review. Int J Environ Sci Technol 16:547–566. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Montazer M, Allahyarzadeh V (2013) Electroless plating of silver nanoparticles/nanolayer on polyester fabric using AgNO3/NaOH and ammonia. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:8436–8444. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Murcia MD, Gómez MM, Gómez E, Gómez JL, Christofi N (2011) Photodegradation of congo red using XeBr, KrCl and Cl2 barrier discharge excilamps: a kinetics study. Desalination 281:364–371. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Murthy SM, Tejavathi DH (2016) Effect of osmopriming on seed germination and seedling vigour in Macrotyloma uniflorum (lam.) verd c. Int J Plant Anim Environ Sci 6:71–76Google Scholar
  30. Nagaraja R, Kottam N, Girija CR, Nagabhushana BM (2012) Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye under UV/solar light using ZnO nanopowder synthesized by solution combustion route. Powder Technol 215–216:91–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nayak D, Ashe S, Rauta PR, Kumari M, Nayak B (2016) Bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antiproliferative response against osteosarcoma. Mater Sci Eng C 58:44–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rafatullah M, Sulaiman O, Hashim R, Ahmad A (2010) Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: A review. J Hazard Mater 177:70–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rasheed T, Bilal M, Iqbal HMN, Li C (2017) Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves extract of Artemisia vulgaris and their potential biomedical applications. Colloids Surf B 158:408–415. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roy K, Sarkar CK, Ghosh CK (2015) Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. Appl Nanosci 5:953–959. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saravanakumar K, Muthuraj V, Vadivel S (2016) Constructing novel Ag nanoparticles anchored on MnO2 nanowires as an efficient visible light driven photocatalyst. RSC Adv 6:61357–61366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sathishkumar P, Preethi J, Vijayan R, Yusoff ARM, Ameen F, Suresh S, Balagurunathan R, Palvannan T (2016) Anti-acne, anti-dandruff and anti-breast cancer efficacy of green synthesised silver nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract. J Photochem Photobiol B 163:69–76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shaikh WA, Chakraborty S, Islam RU (2018) UV-assisted photo-catalytic degradation of anionic dye (Congo red) using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles: a green catalysis. Desalin Water Treat 130:232–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shashi Kumar C, Pradhan RC, Mishra S (2016) Fabrication, performance evaluation and optimization of Sal (Shorea robusta) seed decorticator. J Food Process Eng 40(3):e12468. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Singh S, Saikia JP, Buragohain AK (2013) A novel ‘green’ synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Dillenia indica fruit extract. Colloid Surf B 102:83–85. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sundararajan M, Sailaja V, Kennedy LJ, Vijaya JJ (2017) Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light using nanostructured zinc doped cobalt ferrite: kinetics and mechanism. Ceram Int 43:540–548. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tahir K, Ahmad A, Li B, Nazir S, Khan AU, Nasir T, Khan ZUH, Naz R, Raza M (2016) Visible light photo catalytic inactivation of bacteria and photo degradation of methylene blue with Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite prepared by a novel method. J Photochem Photobiol B 162:189–198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Teh CY, Wu TY, Juan JC (2015) Facile sonochemical synthesis of N, Cl-codoped TiO2: synthesis effects, mechanism and photocatalytic performance. Catal Today 256:365–374. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vidhu VK, Philip D (2014) Catalytic degradation of organic dyes using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Micron 56:54–62. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wahab HS, Hadi HM (2017) Visible light N-TiO2-induced photodegradation of Congo red: characterization, kinetics and mechanistic study. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14:2135–2148. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wu Q, Wang H, Jia Y, Zhou G (2017) Kinetics of the acid orange 7 degradation in the photocatalytic system of UV/H2O2/TS-1. J Water Process Eng 19:106–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yaseen DA, Scholz M (2019) Textile dye wastewater characteristics and constituents of synthetic effluents: a critical review. Int J Environ Sci Technol 16:1193–1226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. You-ji L, Wei C (2011) Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B using nanocrystalline TiO2–zeolite surface composite catalysts: effects of photocatalytic condition on degradation efficiency. Catal Sci Technol 1:802–809. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhu X, Wu G, Wang C, Zhang D, Yuan X (2018) A miniature and low-cost electrochemical system for sensitive determination of rhodamine B. Measurement 120:206–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringBirla Institute of Technology, MesraRanchiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, School of Physical and Material SciencesMahatma Gandhi Central University, MotihariEast ChamparanIndia

Personalised recommendations