Calcined limestone horizontal roughing filter for treatment of palm oil mill effluent polishing pond

  • A. F. Dashti
  • H. A. AzizEmail author
  • M. N. Adlan
  • A. H. Ibrahim
Original Paper


In this paper, palm oil wastewater treatment was investigated via a filtration process using raw and calcinated limestone (CL). The column studies were conducted using different limestone particle sizes (4, 12, and 20 mm), calcined at 800 °C and run at different flow rates of 20, 60, and 100 mL/min, compared to raw limestone under the same conditions. The response surface methodology using central composite design (CCD) was employed in the optimization process. The experimental data were analysed via the analysis of variance to identify the interaction mechanism between the variables and the dependent variable on the COD removal. The results showed that the COD removal increased with an increase in temperature (800 °C), filtration rate of 20 mL/min, the retention time of 317 min, and smaller size (4 mm) of limestone, but decreased with increase in filtration rate and size of raw limestone. Based on the statistical analysis, quadratic models for the response (COD) demonstrated significant values (0.0001). High temperatures and bigger surface area and pore volume increased the COD removal efficiencies. The highest predicted COD removal achieved was about 51% for calcined limestone at the optimum condition of 20 mL/min flowrate and 4 mm particle size, respectively, compared to raw limestone. Freundlich and Langmuir’s isotherms provided good correlation coefficient for the COD removal and the data agreed with the Langmuir isotherm with the best fit model (R2 = 0.916).


Calcined Limestone POME Roughing filter Response surface methodology (RSM) Langmuir isotherms 



The authors would like to thank Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) for the facilities accorded to the study. This work was funded by the USM Short Term Grant (Grant No. 304/PAWAM/60311001) for research associated with the Solid Waste Management Cluster, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering, Engineering CampusUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Solid Waste Management Cluster, Science and Technology Research Centre, Engineering CampusUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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