Synthesis of graphite/PbO2 anode: electrodeposition process modeling for improved landfill leachate treatment using RSM and ANN approach

  • P. Mandal
  • A. K. GuptaEmail author
  • B. K. Dubey
Original Paper


Based on the hypothesis that the electrodeposition conditions may have effects on the developed electrode’s oxidation performance, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of a graphite/PbO2 anode preparation conditions (current intensity, Pb(NO3)2 concentration, HNO3 concentration, and temperature) on leachate treatment efficiency. Synthesis conditions were varied to improve the performance of the electrode, and leachate treatment efficiencies were evaluated using anodes prepared at different conditions. The Box–Behnken design was used as an experimental design for achieving the goal. The effect of variables on the system’s outcome was modeled by response surface methodology and artificial neural network. The variation in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency from 7.81 to 24.58% for 2 h of electrolysis demonstrates significant influences of anode preparation conditions on its performance. The optimum conditions were attained as 0.64 A of current intensity, 0.16 mol L−1 of Pb(NO3)2, 0.16 mol L−1 of HNO3, and 76.98 °C of temperature. The PbO2 electrode developed at optimum conditions yielded 79 ± 1.7% COD removal efficiency of leachate at 8 h. The study results show that electrode synthesis conditions affect the oxidation ability of the electrode, and optimization of the same can significantly improve the treatment performance.


Lead dioxide anode Response surface methodology Artificial neural network Electrochemical oxidation Characterization 



The authors are very much thankful to Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, for providing infrastructural facilities for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) cards of International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) database 2017 was used in the study.

Supplementary material

13762_2019_2460_MOESM1_ESM.docx (199 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 199 kb)


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

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