In the present work, the recovery of zinc granules from synthetic electroplating wastewater was evaluated using fluidized-bed homogeneous crystallization. The effect of carbonate-to-zinc ([CO32−]/[Zn2+]) molar ratio (1.0–2.0), precipitant pH (10.30–11.20), initial zinc concentration (100–500 mg/L), and anions (Cl−, F−, and NO3−) on the removal and granulation efficiencies of zinc was investigated. Results show that the highest granulation efficiency of 96.70% was attained at an influent zinc concentration of 300 mg/L, precipitant pH of 10.60 and [CO32−]/[Zn2+] of 1.2. Meanwhile, the highest removal efficiency of 99.90% was obtained at a precipitant pH of 10.60, [CO32−]/[Zn2+] of 1.2, and influent zinc concentration of 100 mg/L. Moreover, the residual zinc concentration of 0.15 mg/L was attained in the treated effluent, which is within the maximum contaminant level of 5.0 mg/L set by the US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. The presence of anions had little but insignificant effect on the removal where the treated effluent has a residual zinc concentration of 0.44 mg/L. Based on the X-ray diffraction analysis, zinc granules were recovered in the form of smithsonite and hydrozincite with rhombohedral-hexagonal and monoclinic structures, respectively. A broad size distribution was displayed by zinc granules where majority of the pellet diameters fall within the range of 0.149–2.000 mm. Overall, fluidized-bed homogeneous crystallization produced higher-purity pellets and proved to be an effective alternative to seeded crystallization technology.
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This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, under Grant MOST 102-2221-E-041-001-MY3 and National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea through Ministry of Education under Grant 2016R1A6A1A03012812.
Editorial responsibility: J Aravind.
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de Luna, M.D.G., Paulino, L.H.S., Futalan, C.M. et al. Recovery of zinc granules from synthetic electroplating wastewater using fluidized-bed homogeneous crystallization process. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 129–142 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02439-8
- Granulation efficiency
- Solubility diagram