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Phytomanagement of lead-contaminated soils: critical review of new trends and future prospects

  • I. Khan
  • M. Iqbal
  • F. ShafiqEmail author
Review
  • 58 Downloads

Abstract

Lead is a hazardous heavy metal released extensively in the environment through natural and anthropogenic sources and is toxic to terrestrial life. The presence of lead in terrestrial ecosystem raises concerns about human health due to edible safety of the cultivated crops or vegetables, and remediation of such soils is therefore essential. As a green and cost-effective alternative, plants have been used to remediate such soils in a number of ways including phytoextraction, phytostabilization, rhizofiltration, phytotransformation and phytovolatilization. The effectiveness of these plant-based approaches as well as the efficacy of different metal-chelating organic ligands of both synthetic and natural origins for the management of lead-contaminated soils is discussed at length in this review. Furthermore, numerous recent reports are incorporated in tabulated form and areas of potential focus have been highlighted that not only signify the success of such studies in the past but also pave the way for future efforts.

Keywords

Antioxidants Chelates Heavy metal Hyperaccumulator Lead phytoremediation 

Abbreviations

HM

Heavy metal

Pb

Lead

Cd

Cadmium

Cr

Chromium

Hg

Mercury

Sb

Antimony

Ag

Silver

Ni

Nickel

As

Arsenic

Ca

Calcium

Zn

Zinc

PbS

Lead sulfide

PbSO4

Lead sulfate

PbSiO3

Lead silicate

Pb3O4

Lead oxide

PbCO3

Lead carbonate

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

CAT

Catalase

POD

Peroxidase

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

GR

Glutathione reductase

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EGTA

Ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid

EDDS

Ethylenediamine-N,N′-disuccinic acid

DTPA

Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

NTA

Nitrilotriacetic acid

LMWOA

Low-molecular-weight organic acids

CA

Citric acid

MA

Malic acid

TA

Tartaric acid

OA

Oxalic acid

FW

Fresh weight

DW

Dry weight

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank all who assisted in conducting this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyGovernment College University FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan

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