Advertisement

Domestic wastewater hydrolysis and lipolysis during start-up in anaerobic digesters and microbial fuel cells at moderate temperatures

  • E. PetropoulosEmail author
  • B. Shamurad
  • K. Acharya
  • S. Tabraiz
Original Paper
  • 69 Downloads

Abstract

Raw wastewater hydrolysis rates during start-up in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and anaerobic digestion (AD) systems, seeded with a mesophilic inoculum from a digester, were compared at moderate temperatures (27.5 ℃ and 8 ℃). Temperature drop affected both the lipids and carbohydrates hydrolysis rates but not necessarily the protein removal rates (temperature-independent rates of MFC), which were significantly influenced from treatment alteration (AD to MFC). MFC showed robust proteolysis at low temperature compared to AD; the latter seems to have a higher potential at warmer conditions. A lipases activity assay showed that although at 27.5 ℃ both AD and MFC are likely to hydrolyse lipids, the latter has a higher lipolysis potential at low temperatures. Preliminary community structure analysis showed that the switch from AD to MFC alters the bacterial community by 15% with the MFC showing higher diversification; temperature decrease, though, alters the community by 40%. Key organisms that appear to be favoured at the MFC set-ups are Geobacteriaceae, taxa likely related to the hydrolytic capacity of this set-up.

Keywords

Cold-adapted Hydrolysis Lipolysis Low-temperature wastewater treatment Microbial fuel cells 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK (Grant reference EP/G032033/1). The authors would also like to thank Mr. Kangxu Wang for his assistance with the chemical–molecular tests and Dr. Jan Dolfing for reviewing the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13762_2019_2426_MOESM1_ESM.docx (40 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 40 kb)

References

  1. Ahn Y, Logan BE (2010) Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment using microbial fuel cells at ambient and mesophilic temperatures. Biores Technol 101(2):469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA (1995) WPCF, standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Benson DA, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Lipman DJ, Ostell J, Wheeler DL (2008) GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res 36(Database issue):D25–30Google Scholar
  4. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37(8):911–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohn I, Björnsson L, Mattiasson B (2007) Effect of temperature decrease on the microbial population and process performance of a mesophilic anaerobic bioreactor. Environ Technol 28(8):943–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72(1–2):248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burgess JE, Pletschke BI (2008) Hydrolytic enzymes in sewage sludge treatment: a mini-review. Water SA 34(3):343–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cammarota M, Freire D (2006) A review on hydrolytic enzymes in the treatment of wastewater with high oil and grease content. Biores Technol 97(17):2195–2210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cotterill S, Dolfing J, Jones C, Curtis T, Heidrich E (2017) Low temperature domestic wastewater treatment in a microbial electrolysis cell with 1 m2 anodes: towards system scale-up. Fuel Cells 17(5):584–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Curtis TP, Sloan WT (2004) Prokaryotic diversity and its limits: microbial community structure in nature and implications for microbial ecology. Curr Opin Microbiol 7(3):221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dolfing J, Janssen DB (1994) Estimates of Gibbs free energies of formation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds. Biodegradation 5(1):21–28Google Scholar
  12. Gessesse A, Dueholm T, Petersen SB, Nielsen PH (2003) Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge. Water Res 37(15):3652–3657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hedje JE, Hofreiter BT (1962) In: Whistler RL, Be Miller JN (eds) Carbohydrates chemistry, 17th edn. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Heidrich, E.S. (2012) Evaluation of microbial electrolysis cells in the treatment of domestic wastewater, Ph.D. Thesis, E-Theses Newcastle University, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Heidrich ES, Edwards SR, Dolfing J, Cotterill SE, Curtis TP (2014) Performance of a pilot scale microbial electrolysis cell fed on domestic wastewater at ambient temperatures for a 12 month period. Biores Technol 173:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heidrich E, Dolfing J, Wade M, Sloan W, Quince C, Curtis T (2018) Temperature, inocula and substrate: Contrasting electroactive consortia, diversity and performance in microbial fuel cells. Bioelectrochemistry 119:43–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2017.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hu Y, Fu C, Huang Y, Yin Y, Cheng G, Lei F, Lu N, Li J, Ashforth EJ, Zhang L, Zhu B (2010) Novel lipolytic genes from the microbial metagenomic library of the South China Sea marine sediment. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 72(2):228–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kettunen R, Rintala J (1997) The effect of low temperature (5–29 C) and adaptation on the methanogenic activity of biomass. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 48(4):570–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Larrosa-Guerrero A, Scott K, Head I, Mateo F, Ginesta A, Godinez C (2010) Effect of temperature on the performance of microbial fuel cells. Fuel 89(12):3985–3994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lawrence AW, McCarty PL (1969) Kinetics of methane fermentation in anaerobic treatment. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation) 41(2):R1–17Google Scholar
  21. Leal M, Cammarota M, Freire D, Anna S Jr (2002) Hydrolytic enzymes as coadjuvants in the anaerobic treatment of dairy wastewaters. Braz J Chem Eng 19(2):175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lesnik KL, Liu H (2014) Establishing a core microbiome in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98(9):4187–4196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Logan BE (2008) Microbial fuel cells. John Wiley & Sons, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Malina J, Pohland FG (1992) Design of anaerobic processes for treatment of industrial and municipal waste, vol VII. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Manning D, Bewsher A (1997) Determination of anions in landfill leachates by ion chromatography. J Chromatogr A 770(1–2):203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miron Y, Zeeman G, Van Lier JB, Lettinga G (2000) The role of sludge retention time in the hydrolysis and acidification of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins during digestion of primary sludge in CSTR systems. Water Res 34(5):1705–1713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mobarak-Qamsari E, Kasra-Kermanshahi R, Nosrati M, Amani T (2012) Enzymatic pre-hydrolysis of high fat content dairy wastewater as a pretreatment for anaerobic digestion. Int J Environmental Res 6(2):475–480Google Scholar
  28. Muyzer G, De Waal EC, Uitterlinden AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59(3):695–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pavlostathis SG, Giraldo-Gomez E (1991) Kinetics of anaerobic treatment. Water Sci Technol 24(8):35–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Petropoulos E, Dolfing J, Davenport RJ, Bowen EJ, Curtis TP (2017) Developing cold-adapted biomass for the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater at low temperatures (4, 8 and 15 C) with inocula from cold environments. Water Res 112:100–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Petropoulos E, Dolfing J, Yu Y, Wade MJ, Bowen E, Davenport RJ, Curtis T (2018) (2018) Lipolysis of domestic wastewater in anaerobic reactors operating at low temperatures. Environ Sci Water Res Technol 4:1002–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Petropoulos E, Yu Y, Tabraiz S, Yakubu A, Curtis T, Dolfing J (2019) High rate domestic wastewater treatment at 15 ℃ using anaerobic reactors inoculated with cold-adapted sediments/soils – shaping robust methanogenic communities. Environ Sci Water Res Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C8EW00410B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Petruy R, Lettinga G (1997) Digestion of a milk-fat emulsion. Biores Technol 61(2):141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pham T, Rabaey K, Aelterman P, Clauwaert P, De Schamphelaire L, Boon N, Verstraete W (2006) Microbial fuel cells in relation to conventional anaerobic digestion technology. Eng Life Sci 6(3):285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rifkin J (2002) The hydrogen economy: the creation of the worldwide energy web and the redistribution of power on earth. Tarcher/Putnam, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Rinzema A, Alphenaar A, Lettinga G (1993) Anaerobic digestion of long-chain fatty acids in UASB and expanded granular sludge bed reactors. Process Biochem 28(8):527–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sanders S, Bergen D, Buijs S, Corstanje R, Gerrits M, Hoogerwerf T, Kanwar S, Zeeman G, Groenestijn J, Lettinga G (1996) Treatment of waste activated sludge in an anaerobic hydrolysis upflow sludge bed reactor. In: Proceedings of 10th EWPCA-symposium on sewage and refuse, liquid wastes section, München. GFA, Hennef, pp 277–305Google Scholar
  38. Sanz I, Fdz-Polanco F (1990) Low temperature treatment of municipal sewage in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors. Water Res 24(4):463–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smith AL, Skerlos SJ, Raskin L (2013) Psychrophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor treatment of domestic wastewater. Water Res 47(4):1655–1665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Van Haandel AC, Lettinga G (1994) Anaerobic sewage treatment: a practical guide for regions with a hot climate. John Wiley & Sons, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Velasquez-Orta SB, Yu E, Katuri KP, Head IM, Curtis TP, Scott K (2011) Evaluation of hydrolysis and fermentation rates in microbial fuel cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 90(2):789–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vidal G, Carvalho A, Mendez R, Lema J (2000) Influence of the content in fats and proteins on the anaerobic biodegradability of dairy wastewaters. Biores Technol 74(3):231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EngineeringNewcastle UniversityNewcastleEngland, UK

Personalised recommendations