Comparative studies of phytoplankton compositions as a response of water quality at North El-Manzala Lake, Egypt

  • M. A. Deyab
  • S. E. Abu Ahmed
  • F. M. E. WardEmail author
Original Paper


El-Manzala Lake represents one of the most economical and valuable fish sources lakes in Egypt. This study aims to study the impact of physical and chemical properties of water on phytoplankton communities in North El-Manzala Lake. The number and biomass of phytoplankton, as well as physicochemical characteristics of surface water at the seven sites (Al-Baghdadi, Shatta, El-Deiba, Abo El-Ross, El Nafft, Towall Ibrahim, and Shatt Greba) representing North El-Manzala Lake—Damietta, Egypt, were studied from January to December 2017. Physicochemical properties of water exhibited seasonal and local variations. Phytoplankton standing crop in North El-Manzala Lake—Damietta, Egypt, was varied in relation with water quality as follows: Al-Baghdadi > El Nafft > Shatt Greba > Shatta > El-Deiba > Towall Ibrahim > Abo El-Ross. Cyanophyta was the dominant class at all sites except at Al-Baghdadi and Towall Ibrahim where Bacillariophyta and Pyrrophyta were the predominant phytoplanktonic groups, respectively. The maximum crop density was recorded in winter, whereas the lowest values occurred in summer. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed that most of the phytoplankton groups were significantly correlated with water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, ammonia, nitrate, silica, and ortho-phosphorus.


Bacillariophyta Biomass Chlorophyta Cyanophyta Physicochemical analyses Pyrrophyta 



The authors thank all members of the faculty of Science, Damietta University, for their valuable guidance, continuous and unlimited support throughout the whole work. This work did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13762_2019_2409_MOESM1_ESM.xls (215 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 215 kb)
13762_2019_2409_MOESM2_ESM.xls (234 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLS 234 kb)


  1. Abbassi M, Banaoui A, Charioui I, Kaaya A, Elkhou A, Nadir M, Agnaou M, Lefrere L, El Hamidi F (2017) Physico-chemical characterization of the coastal waters of the city of Sidi Ifni (Morocco). J Mater Environ Sci 8(9):3112–3120Google Scholar
  2. Abd El-Karim MS (2008) Monthly variations of phytoplankton communities in Lake Manzala. Global Vet 2(6):343–350Google Scholar
  3. Abdel-Satar AM (2005) Water quality assessment of River Nile from Idfo to Cairo. Egypt J Aquat Res 31(2):200–223Google Scholar
  4. Ahmed MH, El Leithy BM, Thompson JR, Flower RJ, Ramdani M, Ayache F, Hassan SM (2009) Applications of remote sensing to site characterization and environmental change analysis of North African coastal lagoons. Hydrobiologia 622(1):147–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Qutob M, Hase C, Tilzer MM, Lazar B (2002) Phytoplankton drives nitrite dynamics in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 239:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. APHA (American Public Health Association). Anonymous (1996) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 17th edn. APHA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Armbrust EV (2004) The genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: ecology, evolution, and metabolism. Science 306(5693):79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aziz Q, Inam AS, Siddiqi RH (1996) Long term effects of irrigation with chemical industry wastewater. J Environ Sci Health A31(10):2595–2620Google Scholar
  9. Baleta FN, Bolaños JM (2016) Phytoplankton identification and water quality monitoring along the fish-cage belt at Magat dam reservoir, Philippines. Int J Fish Aquat Stud 4(3):254–260Google Scholar
  10. Botes L (2003) Phytoplankton identification catalogue. Saldanha Bay, South Africa, GloBallast monograph no (7)Google Scholar
  11. Boyd CE (1990) Water quality in ponds for aquaculture. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Site, Auburn University, AuburnGoogle Scholar
  12. Carstensen A, Herdean A, Schmidt SB, Sharma A, Spetea C, Pribil M, Husted S (2018) The impacts of phosphorus deficiency on the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Plant Physiol 177(1):271–284Google Scholar
  13. Cetin AK, Sen B (1998) Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) in the phytoplankton of Keban Reservoir and their seasonal variations. Turk J Bot 22(1):25–33Google Scholar
  14. Chellappa NT, Câmara FRA, Rocha O (2009) Phytoplankton community: indicator of water quality in the Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir and Pataxó Channel, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Braz J Biol 69(2):241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deyab MA, Nemat Alla MM, El-Adl FM (2001) Phytoplankton diversity in some fish farms of west Damietta. J Union Arab Biol Bot (Physiol Algae) 8B:65–88Google Scholar
  16. Edler L (1979) Recommendation for marine biological studies in the Baltic Sea. Phytoplankton and chlorophyll. UNESCO, working group. Baltic Marine Biologists, National Swedish Environmental protection Board, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  17. El Gammal MA, Nageeb M, Al-Sabeb S (2017) Phytoplankton abundance in relation to the quality of the coastal water—Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia. Egypt J Aquat Res 43(4):275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elewa AA, Masoud MS, Abdel-Halim AM (1995) Limnological study on the Nile water of Egypt. Bull NRC Egypt 20(4):437–450Google Scholar
  19. El-Kafrawy SBE (2004) Monitoring of pollution in marine environment using remote sensing and GIS system. MSc thesis, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Al-AzharGoogle Scholar
  20. Elmorsi RR, Hamed MA, Abou-El-Sherbini KS (2017) Physicochemical properties of Manzala Lake, Egypt. Egypt J Chem 60(4):519–535Google Scholar
  21. Enawgaw Y, Lemma B (2018) Phytoplankton community composition and nutrient conditions as an indicator of ecosystem productivity in Lake Tinishu Abaya, Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Int J Fish Aquat Stud 6(3):173–186Google Scholar
  22. Fathi AA, Kobbia IA (2000) Hydrobiological investigation on the AbuMedian Lake at El-Minia Egypt. Bull Fac Sci Assiut Univ 29(1-D):77–91Google Scholar
  23. Filstrup CT, Downing JA (2017) Relationship of chlorophyll to phosphorus and nitrogen in nutrient-rich lakes. Inland Waters 7(4):385–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ganai AH, Parveen S (2014) Effect of physico-chemical conditions on the structure and composition of the phytoplankton community in Wular Lake at Lankrishipora. Kashmir Int J Biodivers Conserv 6(1):71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ganjian A, Wan Maznah WO, Fazli H, Vahedi M, Roohi A, Farabi SMV (2010) Seasonal and regional distribution of phytoplankton in the southern part of the Caspian Sea. Iran J Fish Sci 9(3):382–401Google Scholar
  26. George BJI, Kumar N, Kumar RN (2012) Study on the influence of hydro-chemical parameters on phytoplankton distribution along Tapi estuarine area of Gulf of Khambhat, India. Egypt J Aqua Res 38(3):157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Golterman HL (1999) Quantification of P-flux through shallow, agricultural and natural wastes as found in wetlands of the Camargue (S-France). Hydrobiologia 392:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hare CE, Leblanc K, DiTullio GR, Kudela RM, Zhang Y, Lee PA, Riseman S, Hutchins DA (2007) Consequences of increased temperature and CO2 for phytoplankton community structure in the Bering Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 352:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Herman VD, Adrienne M (1995) Long-term changes of diatoms and chemistry in head water streams polluted by atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds. Freshwater Biol 34(3):579–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hulyal SB, Kaliwal BB (2009) Dynamics of phytoplankton in relation to physico-chemical factors of Almatti reservoir of Bijapur District, Karnataka State. Environ Monit Assess 153(1–4):45–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ismail A, Hettiarachchi H (2017) Environmental damage caused by wastewater discharge into the Lake Manzala in Egypt. Am J Biosci Bioeng 5(6):141–150Google Scholar
  32. Juttner I, Rothfritz H, Ormerdo SJ (1996) Diatoms as indicators of river quality in Nepalese Middle Hills with consideration of the effects of habitat-specific sampling. Freshw Biol 36(2):475–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kimmerer WJ, Ignoffo TR, Kayfetz KR, Slaughter AM (2018) Effects of freshwater flow and phytoplankton biomass on growth, reproduction, and spatial subsidies of the estuarine copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi. Hydrobiologia 807(1):113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kobbia IA, Dowidar AE, Shabana EF, Al-Attar SA (1993) Succession, Biomass levels of phytoplankton in the Nile water near the Starch and Glucose Factory at Giza, (Egypt). Egypt J Microbiol 28(1):131–143Google Scholar
  35. Koçer MAT, Şen B (2012) The seasonal succession of diatoms in phytoplankton of a soda lake (Lake Hazar, Turkey). Turk J Bot 36(6):738–746Google Scholar
  36. Koralay N, Kara O, Kezik U (2018) Effects of run-of-the-river hydropower plants on the surface water quality in the Solakli stream watershed, Northeastern Turkey. Water Environ J 32(2018):412–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H (1986) Bacillariophyceae Teil: Naviculaceae. In: Ettl H, Gerloff J, Heynig H, Mollenhauer D (eds) Süsswasserlora von Mitteleuropa, vol 2(11). Gustav Fischer Verlag, JenaGoogle Scholar
  38. Kumar A, Sahu R (2012) Diversity of Algae (Cholorophyceae) in Paddy Fields of Lalgutwa Area, Ranchi, Jharkhand. J Appl Pharm Sci 2(11):92–95Google Scholar
  39. Latasa M, Gutiérrez-Rodríguez A, Cabello AM, Scharek R (2016) Influence of light and nutrients on the vertical distribution of marine phytoplankton groups in the deep chlorophyll maximum. Sci Mar 80(S1):57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. López-Archilla AI, Marin I, Amils R (2001) Microbial community composition and ecology of an acidic aquatic environment: the Tinto River, Spain. Microb Ecol 41(1):20–35Google Scholar
  41. Margalef R (1978) Life forms of phytoplankton as survival alternatives in an unstable environment. Oceanol Acta 1(4):493–509Google Scholar
  42. Moss B (1973) The influence of environmental factors on the distribution of freshwater algae. An experimental study. II. The role of pH and carbon dioxide. J Ecol 61(1):157–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nassar MZ, Hamed MA (2003) Phytoplankton standing crop and species diversity in relation to some water characteristic of Suez Bay (Red Sea), Egypt. Egypt J Aquat Biol Fish 7(3):25–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nassar MZ, Mohamed HR, Khiray HM, Rashedy SH (2014) Seasonal fluctuations of phytoplankton community and physico-chemical parameters of the north western part of the Red Sea, Egypt. Egypt J Aquat Res 40(4):395–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nassar MZ, Mohamedein LI, El Sawy MA (2016) Seasonal variations of phytoplankton and nutrients in the Egyptian harbors of the Northern Red Sea. Int J Mar Sci 6(8):1–17Google Scholar
  46. Rajagopal T, Thangamani A, Archunan G (2010) Comparison of physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton species diversity of two perennial ponds in Sattur area, Tamil Nadu. J Environ Biol 31(5):787–794Google Scholar
  47. Ranković B, Simić S, Bogdanović D (2006) Phytoplankton as indicator of water quality of lakes Bubanj and Šumarice during autumn. Kragujevac J Sci 28(2006):107–114Google Scholar
  48. Rasmussen EK, Petersen OS, Thompson JR, Flower RJ, Ahmed MH (2009) Hydrodynamic-ecological model analyses of the water quality of Lake Manzala (Nile Delta, Northern Egypt). Hydrobiologia 622(1):195–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rimet F, Bouchez A (2012) Biomonitoring river diatoms: implications of taxonomic resolution. Ecol Ind 15(1):92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Salah El Din RA (2005) Changes in physico-chemical characters and its impact on phytoplankton structure of Lake Manzala. Egypt J Phycol 6:111–126Google Scholar
  51. Salah AA, El-Moselhy KM (2015) Seasonal variations of the physical and chemical properties of seawater at the Northern Red Sea, Egypt. Open J Ocean Coastal Sci 2(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sharma PD (2002) Practical manual: ecology and environmental. Rastogi Publications, Meerut, pp 569–572Google Scholar
  53. Sood A, Renuka N, Prasanna R, Ahluwalia AS (2015) Cyanobacteria as potential options for wastewater treatment. In: Ansari A, Gill S, Gill R, Lanza G, Newman L (eds) Phytoremediation. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  54. Stanca E, Roselli L, Durante G, Seveso D, Galli P, Basset A (2013) A checklist of phytoplankton species in the Faafu atoll (Republic of Maldives). Transit Water Bull 7(2):133–144Google Scholar
  55. Suresh B, Manjappa S, Puttaiah ET (2013) Dynamics of phytoplankton succession in Tungabhadra River near Harihar, Karnataka (India). J Microbiol Antimicrob 5(7):65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tikkanen T (1986) Kasviplanktonopas. Suomen Luonnonsuojelun Tuki Oy (Italia.), HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  57. Utermohle H (1936) Quantitative methods zur untersuchugn des Nannoplanktons. In: Abderhalden E (ed) Handbuck der Biologischen Arbietsmethoden, Berlin 2, pp 1879–1937Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Deyab
    • 1
  • S. E. Abu Ahmed
    • 1
  • F. M. E. Ward
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceDamietta UniversityNew Damietta CityEgypt

Personalised recommendations