Modeling of antibiotic degradation in sonophotocatalytic process, increasing biodegradability and process optimization by response surface methodology (RSM)

  • A. Almasi
  • M. MohammadiEmail author
  • F. Baniamerian
  • Z. Berizi
  • M. H. Almasi
  • Z. Pariz
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to study the degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous solutions by ultrasonic along with UV/immobilized ZnO catalyst. The variables such as contact time, antibiotic concentration, and ZnO dose were studied according to the response surface methodology. In the optimum condition, the removal efficiency of 94.2% for PCG and 84.2% for CFX was obtained. The BOD5/COD ratio in the optimum condition increased from 0 to about 0.4. The quadratic and linear model was well fitted with test results (R2 = 0.871–0.996). The results showed that sonophotocatalytic process led to the effective degradation of the PCG and CFX and their enhanced biodegradability.


β-lactam antibiotic AOP US/UV/immobilized ZnO catalyst RSM 



Analysis of variance


Advanced oxidation processes


Biochemical oxygen demand


Central composition design




Chemical oxygen demand


Coefficient of variation


Design of expert software


Penicillin G


Response surface methodology


Standard deviation






Zinc oxide



The authors gratefully acknowledge the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Grant No: 97465) for its financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest to be declared.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Almasi
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Mohammadi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • F. Baniamerian
    • 1
  • Z. Berizi
    • 3
  • M. H. Almasi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Z. Pariz
    • 4
  1. 1.Social Development and Health Promotion Research CenterKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of HealthLarestan University of Medical SciencesLarestanIran
  4. 4.Student Research CommitteeKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran

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