A review of optimum conditions of transesterification process for biodiesel production from various feedstocks
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Development of low-cost, sustainable and environmentally friendly biodiesel is a key focus in the energy industry worldwide. It is known that selecting suitable raw feedstock materials and optimising an efficient transesterification process are crucial in biodiesel production. Effective and realistic strategies are imperative in order to boost the quantity and quality of biodiesel production. In fact, scientists and researchers have put great effort to improve the market value of their biodiesel products. In recent years, the feasibilities of several raw materials as feedstocks to produce biodiesel have been assessed by researchers. These materials were reported able to produce biodiesel that met international standards, namely the American Society for Test and Materials D6751 and European Standard 14214. Although these biodiesel products have met the quality criteria, their fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) contents differ. This review focuses on optimum conditions (methanol/oil molar ratio, amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time) of transesterification process for biodiesel production from various feedstocks. The influence of these factors on FAME composition is also discussed. This review is beneficial to scientists working on biodiesel production particularly for the evolution of eco-friendly and low-cost biodiesel.
KeywordsRenewable energy Biofuel Biodiesel Feedstock Transesterification
S. Ishak thanks the Ministry of Education Malaysia for providing a MyBrain15 (MyPhD) Scholarship Award. The authors also thank Mr Mah Iazam bin Mah Hussin from Eko Dinamik Resources for technical assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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