Advertisement

Activity concentration and annual effective dose estimation of 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in soils of southern Algeria

  • M. Nadri
  • M. R. TanhaEmail author
  • C. Hoeschen
  • C. Khiari
  • A. Ioannidou
Original Paper

Abstract

Sixteen soil samples with depth ranging from 0 to 2 cm were collected from the Sahara region near the locations where in the early 1960s France conducted a series of aboveground and underground nuclear tests in the south of Algeria. The 210Pb activity concentration in soil samples ranged between 0.6 and 62 Bq kg−1, the 40K activity ranged between 77 and 300 Bq kg−1, and the 137Cs activity ranged between 0.2 and 4 Bq kg−1. The annual effective dose of 137Cs and 40K was calculated between ~ 0.3 and 7.5 and ~ 34 and 136 µSv a−1 with an average of 3.72 and 74.68 µSv a−1, respectively. At some sampling points, the annual effective dose crosses the limit proposed by International Atomic Energy Agency and other international standards. To reduce the exposure of public to high level of dose in the area, some recommendations are proposed at the end of this study.

Keywords

Environmental radioactivity French nuclear tests Environmental radioactivity Annual dose Sahara Algeria 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the offered support by the Department of Nuclear and elementary particle physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece, Institute for Radioecology and Radiation Protection (IRS) of the Leibniz University of Hannover Germany. This work was supported by the ENS (Ecole Normale Supèrieure) for M. NADRI PhD.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there exists no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Baggoura B, Noureddine A, Benkrid M (1998) Level of natural and artificial radioactivity in Algeria. Appl Radiat Isot 49:867–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BBC (2010) Saharan states to open joint military headquarters. BBC, SaharaGoogle Scholar
  3. Bunzl K, Schimmack W, Zelles L, Albers BP (2000) Spatial variability of the vertical migration of fallout 137 Cs in the soil of a pasture, and consequences for long-term predictions. Radiat Environ Biophys 39:197–205.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s004110000062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chennouf M (2016) Algeria files 730 complaints to compensate victims of Reggan nuclear tests. Echoroukonline, AlgeriaGoogle Scholar
  5. Dragovi S, Onjia A (2006) Classification of soil samples according to their geographic origin using gamma-ray spectrometry and principal component analysis. J Environ Radioact 89:150–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. George C, levés de Renaud C, Jean-Michel LB, Alexis MP (1970) Carte géologique de l’Algérie. Adrar: Wilaya de la Saoura/Service géologique de l’Algérie; maquette exécutée par. Service géologique de l’Algérie, AlgeriaGoogle Scholar
  7. Ghosh D, Deb A, Bera S, Sengupta R, Patra KK (2008) Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity. Environ Geochem Health 30:79–86.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-007-9114-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hunter P (2003) Extent of environmental contamination by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technological options for mitigation. Technical reports series, no. 419. International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  9. IAEA (2005) Radiological conditions at the former French nuclear test sites in Algeria: preliminary assessment and recommendations. Radiological assessment reports series. International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  10. IAEA-TECDOC (2011) Radioactive particles in the environment: sources, particle characterization and analytical techniques. IAEA-TECDOC, v1663. International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  11. Ioannidou A, Giannakaki E, Manolopoulou M, Stoulos S, Vagena E, Papastefanou C, Gini L, Manenti S, Groppi F (2013) An air–mass trajectory study of the transport of radioactivity from Fukushima to Thessaloniki, Greece and Milan, Italy. Atmos Environ 75:163–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.04.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ioannidou A, Manolopoulou EM, Stoulos S, Vagena E, Papastefanou C, Bonardi ML, Gini L, Manenti S, Groppi F (2014) Radionuclides from Fukushima accident in Thessaloniki, Greece (40°N) and Milano, Italy (45°). J Radioanal Nucl Chem 299:855–860.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-013-2709-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kadum A, Bensaoula AH, Dahmani B (2013) Radioactivity investigation of sand from the Northern Region of Tlemcen-Algeria, using well-shape NaI(Tl) detector. Civil Environ Res 3:171–179Google Scholar
  14. Larsson M (2008) The influence of soil properties on the transfer of Cs-137 from soil to plant. SLU, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  15. Markkanen M (1995) Radiation dose assessments for materials with elevated natural radioactivity. STUK-B-STO, vol 32. Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  16. Michael F, Parpottas Y, Tsertos H (2010) Gamma radiation measurements and dose rates in commonly used building materials in Cyprus. Radiat Prot Dosim 142:282–291.  https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncq193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Moustakidis CH, Lalalzissis G, Pakou A (eds) (2014) Vertical profile of Pb-210, Cs-137 and K-40 in Algerian soil samples. Conference proceedings on new aspects and perspectives in nuclear physics. Thessaloniki, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  18. Niesiobędzka K (2000) Mobile forms of radionuclide Cs-137 in sandy soils in Northeastern Poland. Pol J Environ Stud 9:133–136Google Scholar
  19. Rizzo S, Tomarchio E, Vella G (2010) Environmental radioactivity measurements in the Mediterranean area. Fresenius Environ Bull 19:2433–2443Google Scholar
  20. Tanha M, Riebe B, Ikeda-Ohno A, Schulze M, Khalid FR, Storai A, Walther C (2018) Environmental radioactivity studies in Kabul and northern Afghanistan. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 318:2425–2433.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-018-6242-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. United Nations (1982) Ionizing radiation: sources and biological effects: 1982 report to the General Assembly, with annexes/United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. United Nations (2000) Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. UNSCEAR (2008) Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: UNSCEAR 2008 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly, vol 2008. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.N-body Laboratory and Structure of Matter, Physics Department(ENS) V-KoubaAlgiersAlgeria
  2. 2.Institut für Medizintechnik (IMT)Otto-von-Guericke Universität MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany
  3. 3.Physics DepartmentEcole Normale Supérieure (ENS) Vieux-KoubaAlgiersAlgeria
  4. 4.Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Physics DepartmentAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations