Environmental friendly synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and estimation of its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti

  • S. M. RoopanEmail author
  • R. S. Mathew
  • S. S. Mahesh
  • D. Titus
  • K. Aggarwal
  • N. Bhatia
  • K. I. Damodharan
  • K. Elumalai
  • J. J. Samuel
Original Paper


Nanotechnology is a relatively new field which is making advancements each day. It is making a huge impact on our day-to-day lives. Nanoparticles possess unique properties which makes it viable to use it in a wide variety of fields such as in cosmetics, parasitology and catalysis. We used a plant-mediated, nature-friendly method which does not involve the usage of any harmful chemicals. Syzgium cumini seed extract was taken as the reducing agent for the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Green-synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were confirmed using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared, UV–Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The average particle size was found to be around 50–60 nm. Additionally, larvicidal and ovicidal activity of the prepared nanoparticles against dengue causing vector was also carried out which resulted in LC50 and LC90 of 51.94 ppm and 119.99 ppm, respectively.

Graphical abstract


Syzgium cumini Green synthesis Zinc oxide Nanoparticles Larvicidal Ovicidal activity 



We thank SAS, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, for providing XRD, FTIR, SEM facilities and STIC, Cochin, for TEM facility.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Ayyanar M, Subash-Babu P (2012) Syzygium cumini (L.) skeels: a review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses. Asian Pac J Trop 2:240–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balyan U, Sarkar B (2016) Aqueous extraction kinetics of phenolic compounds from Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) Seeds. Int J Food Prop 20:372–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banerjee J, Kannan RT (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Syzygium cumini (L.) seed extract and evaluation of their in vitro antioxidant activities. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 6:961–968Google Scholar
  4. Benelli G (2015) Research in mosquito control: current challenges for a brighter future. Parasitol Res 114:2801–2805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bobo D, Robinson K, Islam J, Thuretch KJ, Corrie SR (2016) Nanoparticle-based medicines: a review of FDA-approved materials and clinical trials to date. Pharm Res 33:2373–2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BrancoIG Moraes ICF, Argandoña EJS, Madrona GS, Santos C, Ruiz ALTG, Ernesto de Carvalho J, Haminiuk CWI (2016) Influence of pasteurization on antioxidant and in vitro anti-proliferative effects of jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) fruit pulp. Ind Crops Prod 89:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Elango G, Roopan SM, Al-Dhabi NA, Arasu MV, Dhamodaran KI, Elumalai K (2016) Coir mediated instant synthesis of Ni–Pd nanoparticles and its significance over larvicidal, pesticidal and ovicidal activities. J Mol Liq 223:1249–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fowsiya J, Madhumitha G, Al-Dhabi NA, Arasu MV (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of congo red using carissa edulis extract capped zinc oxide nanoparticles. J Photochem Photobiol, B 162:395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ghosh A, Chowdhary N, Chandra G (2012) Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides. Indian J Med Res 135:581–598Google Scholar
  10. Helan V, Prince JJ, Al-Dhabi NA, Arasu MV, Ayeshamariam A, Madhumitha G, Roopan SM, Jayachandran M (2016) Neem leaves mediated preparation of NiO nanoparticles and its magnetization, coercivity and antibacterial analysis. Results Phys 6:712–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ishwarya R, Vaseeharan B, Subbaiah S, Nazar AK, Govindarajan M, Alharbi NS, Kadaikunnan S, Khaled JM, Al-anbr MN (2018a) Sargassum wightii-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles—from antibacterial and insecticidal activity to immunostimulatory effects on the green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus. J Photochem Photobiol, B 183:318–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ishwarya R, Vaseeharan B, Kalyani S, Banumathi B, Govindarajan M, Alharbi NS, Kadaikunnan S, Al-anbr MN, Khaled JM, Benelli G (2018b) Facile green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca seaweed extract and evaluation of their photocatalytic, antibiofilm and insecticidal activity. J Photochem Photobiol, B 178:249–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kapuscinska A, Igielska-Kalwat J, Goscianska J, Nowak I (2015) Use of metal nanoparticles in cosmetics. Prezem Chem 94:566–570Google Scholar
  14. Kirthi AV, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T, Jayaseelan C, Velayutham K (2011) Acaricidal, pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using wet chemical route against blood feeding parasites. Parasitol Res 109:461–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koupaei MH, Shareghi B, Saboury AA, Davar F, Semnani A, Evini M (2016) Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their effect on the stability and activity of proteinase K. RSC Adv 6:42313–42323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kumar V, Yadav SK (2012) Characterisation of gold nanoparticles synthesized by leaf and seed extract of Syzygium cumini L. J Exp Nanosci 7:440–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Madhumitha G, Elango G, Roopan SM (2016) Biotechnological aspects of ZnO nanoparticles: overview on synthesis and its applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100:571–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pageni P, Yang P, Chen YP, Huang Y, Bam M, Zhu T, Nagarkatti M, Benicewicz BC, Decho AW, Tang C (2018) Charged metallopolymer-grafted silica nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications. Biomacromol 19:417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ramala SK, Manivasagam GA (2016) Updated review of nanoparticles. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 5:1622–1637Google Scholar
  20. Rana PJS, Singh P, Kar P (2016) Carbon nanoparticles for ferric ion detection and novel HFCNs-Fe3+ composite for NH3 and F- estimation based on a “TURN ON” mechanism. J Mater Chem B Mater Biol Med 4:5929–5937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rani M, Shanker U (2017) Degradation of traditional and new emerging pesticides in water by nanomaterials: recent trends and future recommendations. Int J Environ Sci Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ravichandran K, Karthika K, Sakthivel B, JabenaBegum N, Snega S, Swaminathan K, Senthamilselvi V (2014) Tuning the combined magnetic and antibacterial properties of ZnO nanopowders through Mn doping for biomedical applications. J Magn Magn Mater 358–359:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Roopan SM, Bharathi A, Kumar R, Khanna VG, Prabhakarn A (2012) Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Colloid Surf B 92:209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shipway AN, Katz E, Willner I (2000) Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical and sensor applications. Chem Phys Chem 1:18–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singh A, Prasad SM (2017) nanotechnology and its role in agro ecosystem: a strategic perspective. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14:2277–2300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Su T, Mulla MS (1998) Ovicidal activity of neem products (azadirachtin) against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Am Mosq Control Assoc 14:204–209Google Scholar
  27. Surendra TV, Roopan SM, Al-Dhabi NA, Arasu MV, Sarkar G, Suthindhiran K (2016) Vegetable peel waste for the production of ZnO Nanoparticles and its toxicological efficiency, antifungal, hemolytic, and antibacterial activities. Nanoscale Res Lett 11:546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Swami SB, Thakor NSJ, Patil MM, Haldankar PM (2012) Jamun (Syzygium cumini (L.)): a review of its food and medicinal uses. Food Nutr Sci 3:1100–1117Google Scholar
  29. Velayutham K, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Roopan SM, Elango G, Kamaraj C, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T, Iyyapan M, Siva C (2013) Larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex gelidus. Asian Pac J Trop Med 6:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Veni T, Pushpanathan P, Mohanraj J (2017) Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Family: Combretaceae) medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. J Parasit Dis 41:693–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Venkateswarlu S, Kumar BN, Prasad CH, Venkateswarlu P, Jyothi NVV (2014) Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract. Physica B Condens Matter 449:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. WHO Handbook for integrated vector management, World Health Organization, Geneva (2012)Google Scholar
  33. Xia Y, Matham MV, Su H, Padmanabhan P (2016) Nanoparticulate contrast agents for multimodality molecular imaging. J Biomed Nanotechnol 12:1553–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yang Y, Zhang C, Hu Z (2013) Impact of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles on wastewater treatment and anaerobic digestion. Env Sci Process Impact 15:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang Y, Nayak TR, Hong H, Cai W (2013) Biomedical Applications of zinc oxide nanomaterials. Curr Mol Med 13:1633–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang XF, Shen W, Gurunathan S (2016) Silver nanoparticle-mediated cellular responses in various cell lines: an in vitro model. Int J Mol Sci 17:1603CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Roopan
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. S. Mathew
    • 1
  • S. S. Mahesh
    • 1
  • D. Titus
    • 2
  • K. Aggarwal
    • 1
  • N. Bhatia
    • 1
  • K. I. Damodharan
    • 3
  • K. Elumalai
    • 3
  • J. J. Samuel
    • 2
  1. 1.Chemistry of Heterocycles and Natural Product Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, School of Advanced SciencesVellore Institute of TechnologyVelloreIndia
  2. 2.Medical Gel Dosimetry Lab, Department of Physics, School of Advanced SciencesVellore Institute of TechnologyVelloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Advanced Zoology and BiotechnologyGovernment Arts College (Autonomous)ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations