Pollutant removal potential of single-size root zone media using Vetiveria zizanioides as emergent macrophyte and its validation

  • H. S. ShashibhushanaEmail author
  • B. Lokeshappa
Original Paper


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of horizontal flow constructed wetland system made up of single-size gravel media root zone using Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) as emergent plant with focus on removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate and orthophosphate of sewage in microcosms scale test bed. In this study, wetland was made of RCC tank [1.8 m (L) × 0.8 m (W) × 0.7 m (H)] and planted with vetiver in 20 mm gravel root zone media and another setup without plants was maintained as a control. Constructed wetland was subjected to a flow rate of 0.18 m3/day and 0.12 m3/day corresponding to hydraulic retention time of 2 and 3 days, respectively, and pollutant loading rates in gm/m3/d in the range of 20.04–30.8, 45.59–49.2, 3.48–4.94 and 1.13–1.4, respectively, for biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate and orthophosphate. Removal efficiency achieved for biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate and orthophosphate was in the range of 88.87–92.25%, 77.65–81.07%, 44.97–51.43% and 49.17–53.33%, respectively, for 2 and 3 days of hydraulic retention time for the wetland system. Removal efficiency of horizontal flow constructed wetland system with vetiver is statistically significant (p < 0.05: two-sample Student’s t test) compared to control. Results obtained are validated through Proff. Kickuth and K-C* model. Results of the present study are in closer agreement with K-C* models’ predictions.


Horizontal flow constructed wetland Biochemical oxygen demand Green technology K-C* models Phytoremediation Retention time 



The author expresses his gratitude to Bharat Electronic Ltd and staff of Environmental Engineering Department for providing the facility and continuous support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Corresponding author hereby declares that there is no conflict of interest between authors.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering DepartmentBharat Electronics LimitedBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity BDT College of EngineeringDavanagereIndia

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