Monitoring and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in household’s drinking water of Isfahan, Iran
- 37 Downloads
This study aimed to determine the presence of phthalates and their concentration in household’s drinking water and to examine their potential risk for inhabitants in urban regions of Isfahan, Iran. During the summer and winter of 2017, samples were extracted from 33 private residences via dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with some modifications. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to determine the presence of four major phthalates. According to the results, four phthalates, including dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), diethyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), were present in the samples. The highest contamination with phthalates was attributed to DEHP (606.89 ng/l). Except for BBP, the mean concentrations of other PAE compounds were higher in summer than in winter. The mean concentration of DEHP in sampling points with plastic pipes was higher than that of regions with metal pipes. Based on the health risk assessment, exposure of humans to phthalates in drinking water was acceptable and did not pose carcinogenic effects. Further studies are recommended for adequate monitoring of phthalates in drinking water, food, and air in order to ensure human health.
KeywordsPhthalates esters Drinking water Summer Winter Health risk assessment
This study was funded by the Research Chancellery of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Grant No. 195103). The authors would like to thank the Deputy of Research and Technology of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences for providing the required financial support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was registered with the code of ethics IR.MUI.REC.1395.1.103 in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.
We obtained informed consent from homeowners before sampling.
- Faraji M, Taherkhani A, Nemati S, Mohammadi A (2017) Challenges in the use of polyethylene terephthalate bottles for the packaging of drinking water. Biomed Health 2:224–229Google Scholar
- U. S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (1991) National primary drinking water regulations federal register, part 12, 40 CFR, part 141. US EPA, Washington, p 395Google Scholar
- WHO (2003) Chemical aspects, guidelines for drinking water quality, 3rd edn. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar