Biodegradation of phenolic resin used in leather processing by laccase producing Trichoderma aureoviridae

  • I. Lawrance
  • V. Sivaranjani
  • A. Michael Selvakumar
  • Yasmin KhambhatyEmail author
  • P. Saravanan
Original Paper


The present study focuses on the biodegradation of phenolic syntan, a widely used environmental pollutant in leather processing. Syntans contain phenolic hydroxyl groups and have the ability to react with collagen to produce leather. Presence of refractory organic compounds like tannin in tannery wastewater imparts recalcitrance and toxicity. Hence, the present study was carried out to degrade phenolic syntan (Basyntan DI) at varying concentrations using lignocellulosic fungi Trichoderma aureoviridae. After the degradation, the samples were analyzed for various physiochemical parameters like COD, BOD, total organic carbon (TOC) and total phenol content (TPC). Any changes in the functional group as a result of biodegradation were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The disorder in aromaticity coupled to reduction in peak intensity was indicative of biodegradation and amenability to treatment. The experimental data revealed that the phenolic syntan at a concentration of 500 ppm exhibited a significant and higher percentage of degradability compared to other concentrations tested.


Biodegradation Phenolic syntan (Basyntan) Phenol formaldehyde condensate Tannery wastewater Trichoderma aureoviridae 



I. Lawrance, V. Sivaranjani and A. Michael Selvakumar thank Head, LPT for financial support. CSIR-CLRI Communication Number A/2018/LPT/CSIR-CLRI/1268.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Ahn MY, Dec J, Kim JE, Bollag JM (2002) Treatment of 2,4-dichlorophenol polluted soil with free and immobilized laccase. J Environ Qual 31:1509–1515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aich A, Goswami AR, Roy US, Mukhopadhyay SK (2015) Ecotoxicological assessment of tannery effluent using guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as an experimental model: a biomarker study. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 78:278–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. APHA-AWWA, W.P.C.F. (1989) Standard methods for the examination of waters and waste waters, 17th edn. American Public Health Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldrian P (2006) Fungal laccases-occurrence and properties. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:215–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bollag JM, Shuttleworth KL, Anderson DH (1988) Laccase-mediated detoxification of phenolic compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol 54:3086–3091Google Scholar
  6. Call HP, Mucke I (1997) History, overview and applications of mediated lignolytic systems, especially laccase-mediator-systems. J Biotechnol 53:63–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chakroun H, Bouaziz M, Dhouib A, Sayadi S (2012) Enzymatic oxidative transformation of phenols by Trametes trogii laccases. Environ Technol 33:977–1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Desai SS, Tenali GB, Channur N, Anup AC, Deshpande J, Murtuza BP (2011) Isolation of laccase producing fungi and partial characterization of laccase. Biotechnol Bioinform Bioeng 1:543–549Google Scholar
  9. Dixit S, Yadav A, Dwivedi PD, Das M (2015) Toxic hazards of leather industry and technologies to combat threat: a review. J Clean Prod 87:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gianfreda L, Sannino F, Filazzola MT, Leonowicz A (1998) Catalytic behavior and detoxifying ability of a laccase from the fungal strain Cerrena unicolor. J Mol Catal B Enzym 4:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gupta VK, Atar N, Yola ML, Ustundag Z, Uzun L (2014) A novel magnetic Fe@ Au core–shell nanoparticles anchored graphene oxide recyclable nanocatalyst for the reduction of nitrophenol compounds. Water Res 48:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Justino C, Marques AG, Duarte KR, Duarte AC, Pereira R, Rocha-Santos T, Freitas AC (2010) Degradation of phenols in olive oil mill wastewater by biological, enzymatic, and photo-Fenton oxidation. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 17:650–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Karetnikova EA, Zhirkova AD (2005) Degradation of phenols formed during lignin pyrolysis by microfungi of genera Trichoderma and Penicillium. Biol Bull 32:445–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khambhaty Y, Ananth S, Sreeram KJ, Rao JR, Nair BU (2015) Dual utility of a novel, copper enhanced laccase from Trichoderma aureoviridae. Int J Biol Macromol 81:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leonowicz A, Cho N, Luterek J, Wilkolazka A, Wojtas-Wasilewska M, Matuszewska A, Hofrichter M, Wesenberg D, Rogalski J (2001) Fungal laccase: properties and activity on lignin. J Basic Microbiol 41:185–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lu Y, Yan L, Wang Y, Zhou S, Fu J, Zhang J (2009) Biodegradation of phenolic compounds from coking wastewater by immobilized white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J Hazard Mater 165:1091–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lv SH, Hou MM (2011) Synthesis and properties of phenolic syntan with HRP catalysis. Appl Mech Mater 80:391–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mayer AM, Staples RC (2002) Laccase: new functions for an old enzyme. Phytochem 60:551–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Minussi RC, Miranda MA, Silva JA, Ferreira CV, Aoyama H, Marangoni S, Rotilio D, Pastore GM, Duran N (2007) Purification, characterization and application of laccase from Trametes versicolor for colour and phenolic removal of olive mill wastewater in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Afr J Biotechnol 6:1248–1254Google Scholar
  20. Murugananthan M, Bhaskar Raju G (2010) Removal of organic dyes and tannins by electrochemical techniques. J Photochem Photobiol B 8:189–215Google Scholar
  21. Pointing SB (1999) Qualitative methods for the determination of lignocellulolytic enzyme production by tropical fungi. Fungal Divers 2:17–33Google Scholar
  22. Poljansek I, Krajnc M (2005) Characterization of phenol-formaldehyde prepolymer resins by in line FT-IR spectroscopy. Acta Chim Slov 52:238Google Scholar
  23. Rajendran S, Khan MM, Gracia F, Qin J, Gupta VK, Arumainathan S (2016) Ce3+-ion-induced visible-light photocatalytic degradation and electrochemical activity of ZnO/CeO2 nanocomposite. Sci. Rep 6:31641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rema T, Parivallal B, Ramanujam RA (2010) Studies on degradation of syntan used in leather tanning process using ozone. Int J Environ Sci Technol 1:264Google Scholar
  25. Rodriguez E, Pickard MA, Vazquez-Duhalt R (1999) Industrial dye decolorization by laccases from ligninolytic fungi. Curr Microbiol 38(1):27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Senthilvelan T, Kanagaraj J, Panda RC (2018) Effective bioremoval of syntan using fungal laccase to reduce pollution from effluent. Int J Environ Sci Technol 15(7):1429–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Slinkard K, Singleton VL (1977) Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Vitic 28:49–55Google Scholar
  28. Sundarapandiyan S, Ramanaiah B, Chandrasekar R, Saravanan P (2010) Degradation of phenolic resin by Tremetes versicolor. J Polym Environ 18:674–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Viswanath B, Rajesh B, Janardhan A, Kumar AP, Narasimha G (2014) Fungal laccases and their applications in bioremediation. Enzyme Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yaropolov AI, Skorobogat Ko OV, Vartanov SS, Varfolomeyev SD (1994) Laccase. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 49:257–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Lawrance
    • 1
  • V. Sivaranjani
    • 1
  • A. Michael Selvakumar
    • 1
  • Yasmin Khambhaty
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Saravanan
    • 1
  1. 1.Leather Process Technology DepartmentCSIR-Central Leather Research InstituteAdyar, ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations