Long-term leaching assessment of constituent elements from Linz–Donawitz slag of major steel industries in India

  • S. Chand
  • S. K. Chand
  • B. PaulEmail author
  • M. Kumar
Original Paper


Continuous long-term open column (> 1 year, during July 2014–July 2015) percolation leaching experiments were undertaken to assess leachability of important constituent elements from Linz–Donawitz slag of Rourkela, Bokaro and Tata steel plants. Leachates were continuously collected at an interval of 3–5 days from open column during 110 cycles of percolation leaching test and analysed for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Leachate concentration of different elements showed remarkable variation in terms of leachability from different slag samples. Linz–Donawitz slags cumulative concentration of the elements in the leachate (µg/kg) range showed Mn (16.13–57.73) > Fe (38.36–54.43) > As (8.06–19.66) > Cu (7.83–10.66) > Cr (5.2–6.53) > Ni (5.2–6.16) > Zn (BDL—5.76) > Se (BDL—5) > Co (BDL—3.66) decreasing trend. Among Linz–Donawitz slags, Cr, Ni, Se and Zn leachate concentrations were relatively higher for Tata, whereas As, Co and Fe were higher for Bokaro. Leachate concentration of Cd, V and Pb was below detection limit in all slag samples from the steel plants. During initial period of leaching experiments, concentration of many elements (As, Cu, Fe and Mn) showed increasing trend, which reaches a plateau afterwards. The experimental results estimate low cumulative leachate content of different elements from Linz–Donawitz slag and therefore has prospect for bulk utilization for reclamation of degraded land, mine void filling, road construction etc.


Constituent elements Leaching Linz–Donawitz slag Pollution 



The authors express sincere thanks to the competent authority of Bokaro, Rourkela and Tata steel plant for providing LD slag sample. We acknowledge the guidance and necessary support of Prof. S. K. Gupta, Head and Prof. A. K. Singh, Ex-Head, Environmental Science and Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), IIT (ISM), Dhanbad and Dr. C. R. Panda, Head, Environment, and Sustainability Department, CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar. The first author expresses her gratitude to Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India, New Delhi, for grant of Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) scheme of IIT (ISM) towards carrying out her Ph.D. research work. All the authors acclaim the reviewers and editor for their valuable comments and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Centre of Mining EnvironmentIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), IIT (ISM), DhanbadDhanbadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals, Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers, Government of IndiaCentral Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology (CIPET)BhubaneswarIndia
  3. 3.Environment and Sustainability DepartmentCSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (IMMT)BhubaneswarIndia

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