Removal of nickel from groundwater by iron and manganese oxides
- 175 Downloads
Over the last decade, increasing nickel concentrations presumably due to pyrite oxidation have been detected in aquifers in some areas of northwestern Germany. Maximum values of 114 µg L−1 exceeded the amended German drinking water guideline by nearly sevenfold. Hence, MnCl2·H2O is added during water treatment; however, a complete removal of nickel failed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the removal of nickel from groundwater by iron and manganese oxides from waterworks. Therefore, oxides were taken from the pre-filter and secondary filter and investigated in terms of their chemical and physical characteristics as well as their nickel adsorption behavior. Additionally, three further adsorbents (goethite, ferrihydrite and birnessite) were evaluated concerning their applicability for nickel removal. Adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system as a function of time (1 min to 28 days) and pH (2 to 7.5). Furthermore, nickel adsorption was investigated as a function of the equilibrium concentration (0.00315–50 mmol L−1), and the data were evaluated with the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The adsorption of nickel was strongly dependent on time, where a time span of ± 10 min changed the nickel adsorption by ± 2–8%. Nickel adsorption showed high sensitivity to pH and reached a maximum at pH 7.5. The results indicated that manganese oxides have a higher affinity for nickel adsorption and that adsorption by iron oxides is negligible. Small increases in contact time and an increase in pH during water treatment can promote nickel adsorption.
KeywordsAdsorption Birnessite Ferrihydrite Groundwater Nickel Oxide
The authors thank Reinhard Berling from the waterworks in Getelo (Germany) for his support during sampling.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Broers HP (2002) Nitrate reduction and pyrite oxidation in the Netherlands. In: Razowska-Jaworek L, Sadurski A (eds) Nitrates in groundwater: selected papers from European meeting of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, Wisla, Poland, 4–7 June 2002, Balkema, LeidenGoogle Scholar
- Cheney MA, Bhowmik PK, Qian SZ, Joo SW, Hou WS, Okoh JM (2008) A new method of synthesizing black birnessite nanoparticles: from brown to black birnessite with nanostructures. J Nanomater 2008:1–8Google Scholar
- Cornell RM, Schwertmann U (2006) The iron oxides. Structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
- Stetter D, Dördelmann O (2009) Entfernung von Nickel aus Grundwässern. DVGW. Energie Wasser-Praxis 5:55–59Google Scholar
- TrinkwV (2001) Verordnung über die Qualität von Wasser für den menschlichen Gebrauch. Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, dem Bundesministerium für Verbraucherschutz, Ernährung und Landwirtschaft. BerlinGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, vol 1 Recommendations, 4th edn. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Zeien H, Brümmer GW (1989) Chemische Extraktion zur Bestimmung von Schwermetallbindungsformen in Böden. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft 59:505–510Google Scholar