Advertisement

Evaluation and kinetic study on enzyme supplementation to biological treatment of vegetable tanning process wastewater

  • Abirami Balakrishnan
  • Sri Bala kameswari KanchinadhamEmail author
  • Chitra Kalyanaraman
Original Paper
  • 78 Downloads

Abstract

Vegetable tannins bind to the collagen of raw hides/skins and transform them into leather. The polyphenolic nature of tannin makes it inhibitory to the microorganisms and hinders the biodegradation process. Studies were carried out by external supplementation of tannase enzyme to enhance the biodegradability of tannins present in vegetable tanning process wastewater (VTW). Aerobic treatment studies were carried out for (1) VTW alone and (2) by external supplementation of tannase enzyme to VTW. The performance of the treatment process was assessed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and tannin removal efficiencies, separately. The results indicated that the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD5 and tannin were 27%, 39% and 34.1%, respectively, for VTW alone and 51.4%, 63% and 57%, in case of tannase enzyme-supplemented VTW, for the same residence time of 24 h. Pyrogallol, which is a breakdown product of tannic acid, was found to be 324 mg/L in enzyme-supplemented reactor and 97 mg/L in reactor without tannase enzyme supplementation. Based on the experimental studies, biodegradation kinetic coefficients were derived. In the aerobic treatment process for the tannase enzyme-supplemented VTW, the values derived for maximum specific growth rate (µm), yield coefficient (Y), decay coefficient (Kd), Monod half-saturation constant (Ks) and substrate inhibition constant (Ki) were 0.068 h−1, 0.436, 0.015 h−1, 345 mg/L and 46 mg/L, respectively. The role of tannase enzyme supplementation in enhanced removal of tannin content during the aerobic treatment process was confirmed by FTIR and GC–MS analysis.

Keywords

Aerobic treatment Biodegradation Tannins Tannase Vegetable tanning process wastewater 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Director, CSIR-CLRI, for permitting to carry out this research work. This research work is funded by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India, New Delhi, during 2013–2016. The authors thank CLRI—Centre for Analysis, Testing, Evaluation and Reporting Services (CLRI-CATERS), for providing instrumentation facility. This research work is carried out as a part of the Ph.D programme of the candidate Ms. Abirami Balakrishnan, registered under Anna University, Chennai, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aguilar CN, Rodríguez R, Gutiérrez-Sánchez G, Augur C, Favela-Torres E, Prado-Barragan LA, Contreras-Esquivel JC (2007) Microbial tannases: advances and perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 76(1):47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA, AWWA, WEF (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. Arutchelvan V, Kanakasabai V, Elangovan R, Nagarajan S, Muralikrishnan V (2006) Kinetics of high strength phenol degradation using Bacillus brevis. J Hazard Mater 129(1–3):216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Athomo ABB, Anris SE, Safou-Tchiama R, Santiago-Medina FJ, Cabaret T, Pizzi A, Charrier B (2018) Chemical composition of African mahogany (K. ivorensis A. Chev) extractive and tannin structures of the bark by MALDI-TOF. Ind Crops Prod 113:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balakrishnan A, Kameswari KSB, Kalyanaraman C (2018) Assessment of aerobic biodegradability for vegetable tanning process wastewater generated from leather industry. In: Singh V, Yadav S, Yadava R (eds) Water quality management. Springer, Singapore, pp 151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhat TK, Singh B, Sharma OP (1998) Microbial degradation of tannins—a current perspective. Biodegradation 9(5):343–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Govindarajan RK, Revathi S, Rameshkumar N, Krishnan M, Kayalvizhi N (2016) Microbial tannase: current perspectives and biotechnological advances. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 6:168–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grady CPL, Daigger GT, Lim HC (1999) Biological wastewater treatment, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York (revised and expanded) Google Scholar
  9. He Q, Yao K, Sun D, Shi B (2007) Biodegradability of tannin-containing wastewater from leather industry. Biodegradation 18(4):465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iibuchi S, Minoda Y, Yamada K (1967) Studies on tannin acyl hydrolase of microorganisms: part II. A new method determining the enzyme activity using the change of ultra violet absorption. Agric Biol Chem 31(5):513–518Google Scholar
  11. Jadhav U, Kadu S, Thokal N, Padul M, Dawkar V, Chougale A, Patil M (2011) Degradation of tannic acid by cold-adapted Klebsiella sp NACASA1 and phytotoxicity assessment of tannic acid and its degradation products. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18(7):1129–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jana A, Maity C, Halder SK, Mondal KC, Pati BR, Mohapatra PKD (2012) Tannase production by Penicillium purpurogenum PAF6 in solid state fermentation of tannin-rich plant residues following OVAT and RSM. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 167(5):1254–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Krumholz LR, Bryant MP (1988) Characterization of thepyrogallol-phloroglucinolisomerase of Eubacterium oxidoreducens. J Bacteriol 170(6):2472–2479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar RA, Gunasekaran P, Lakshmanan M (1999) Biodegradation of tannic acid by Citrobacter freundii isolated from a tannery effluent. J Basic Microbiol 39(3):161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li WW, Li XD, Zeng KM (2009) Aerobic biodegradation kinetics of tannic acid in activated sludge system. Biochem Eng J 43(2):142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Magalhaes LM, Ramos II, Reis S, Segundo MA (2014) Antioxidant profile of commercial oenological tannins determined by multiple chemical assays. Aust J Grape Wine Res 20(1):72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Makinia J, Wells SA (2000) A general model of the activated sludge reactor with dispersive flow—I. Model development and parameter estimation. Water Res 34(16):3987–3996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Malacarne M, Antoniolli G, Bertoldi D, Nardin T, Larcher R (2017) Botanical origin characterisation of tannins using infrared spectroscopy. Food Chem 267:204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mugdha A, Usha M (2012) Enzymatic treatment of wastewater containing dyestuffs using different delivery systems. Sci Rev Chem Commun 2(1):31–40Google Scholar
  20. Murugan K, Al-Sohaibani SA (2010) Biocompatible removal of tannin and associated color from tannery effluent using the biomass and tannin acyl hydrolase (EC 3.1. 1.20) enzymes of mango industry solid waste isolate Aspergillus candidus MTTC 9628. Res J Microbiol 5(4):262–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ramírez L, Arrizon J, Sandoval G, Cardador A, Bello-Mendoza R, Lappe P, Mateos-Díaz JC (2008) A new microplate screening method for the simultaneous activity quantification of feruloylesterases, tannases, and chlorogenateesterases. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 151(2–3):711–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ren S (2004) Assessing wastewater toxicity to activated sludge: recent research and developments. Environ Int 30:1151–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ricci A, Olejar KJ, Parpinello GP, Kilmartin PA, Versari A (2015) Application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of tannins. Appl Spectrosc Rev 50(5):407–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rout S, Banerjee R (2006) Production of tannase under mSSF and its application in fruit juice debittering. Indian J Biotechnol 5(3):346–350Google Scholar
  25. Selwal MK, Yadav A, Selwal KK, Aggarwal NK, Gupta R, Gautam SK (2011) Tannase production by Penicillium atramentosum KM under SSF and its applications in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. Braz J Microbiol 42(1):374–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Singh RK, Kumar S, Kumar S, Kumar A (2008) Biodegradation kinetic studies for the removal of p-cresol from wastewater using Gliomastix indicus MTCC 3869. Biochem Eng J 40(2):293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Srivastava A, Kar R (2010) Application of immobilized tannase from Aspergillus niger for the removal of tannin from myrobalan juice. Indian J Microbiol 50(1):46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Swain T, Goldstein JL (1964) In: Pridham JB (ed) Methods in polyphenol chemistry. Pergamon Press, Oxford, London, p 131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Thebault M, Pizzi A, Dumarcay S, Gerardin P, Fredon E, Delmotte L (2014) Polyurethanes from hydrolysable tannins obtained without using isocyanates. Ind Crops Prod 59:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tor ER, Francis TM, Holstege DM, Galey FD (1996) GC/MS determination of pyrogallol and gallic acid in biological matrices as diagnostic indicators of oak exposure. J Agric Food Chem 44(5):1275–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tramsek M, Gorsek A, Glavic P (2006) The aerobic biodegradation kinetics of plant tannins in industrial wastewater. Chem Biochem Eng Q 20(3):285–291Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abirami Balakrishnan
    • 1
  • Sri Bala kameswari Kanchinadham
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chitra Kalyanaraman
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Science and Engineering DivisionCSIR – Central Leather Research InstituteAdyar, ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations