Feasibility removal of BOD5, COD, and ammonium by using Gambusia fish and Phragmites australis in H-SSF wetland

  • M. Massoudinejad
  • N. Alavi
  • M. GhaderpooriEmail author
  • F. Musave
  • S. Massoudinejad
Original Paper


Today, there is a wide range of wastewater treatment procedures, but most of them have major problems, such as high construction costs, high energy consumption, complex operation, and the need for sludge treatment and disposal, and requirement to use high technology for treatment. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (H-SSF CWs) by Gambusia fish and Phragmites australis (plant) for municipal wastewater treatment. This study focused on the removal of BOD5, COD, and ammonium. The wastewater was used as the raw input effluent to the Shahid Mahallati Wastewater Treatment Plant in Tehran, Iran. The pilot used included five 120-liter tanks. In tank 1, coded 2-A, the plant of P. australis was planted and from tank 4 used as a control sample (without P. australis). In the remaining two tanks, tank 2-B and 3, Gambusia fish were placed. At the beginning of the study, the dilution of the input effluent was done for the adaptation. The removal efficiency of BOD5 in the tanks of 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 91.83%, 91.97%, 4.12%, and 71.16%, respectively. The removal efficiency has increased in all tanks in the summer compared to spring. The results of the study showed that the maximum removal efficiency was observed in tank 2 due to the presence of P. australis–Gambusia fish. The mean concentration of ammonium in the spring and summer was 14.37 mg/l and 19.7 mg/l, respectively. The removal efficiency of NH4+ in the tanks of 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 36%, 11.38%, and 4.56%, respectively. So, the NH4+ removal efficiency has increased in all constructed wetlands in the summer compared to spring. Based on the results, H-SSF CWs can be considered as a good alternative for wastewater treatment in small communities.


Wastewater Wetland Phragmites Australis Gambusia fish H-SSF CWs 



The authors of this work thank the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science (SBMU) for their financial support.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Massoudinejad
    • 1
  • N. Alavi
    • 2
  • M. Ghaderpoori
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • F. Musave
    • 2
  • S. Massoudinejad
    • 5
  1. 1.Professor of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of HealthShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health and NutritionLorestan University of Medical SciencesKhorramabadIran
  4. 4.Nutritional Health Research CenterLorestan University of Medical SciencesKhorramabadIran
  5. 5.Department of Architecture and Urban DesignShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran

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