Exploring the novel indigenous strains for degrading the crude oil contaminants in soil sample

  • M. RusselEmail author
  • X. Li
  • M. Qu
  • M. Wu
  • L. Liu
  • Md. M. Alam
Original Paper


Soil hydrocarbon pollution often causes the crop quality and safety issue. Therefore, a high priority is given to exploring the novel bacterial strain to sustainable green agricultural food products. Two novel crude oil-degrading bacteria were screened from the local oil-contaminated soil, which exhibited a good emulsifying capacity in their oil spreading test, showing their most clearing zone on the oil covering petri dish. Glycolipid bio-surfactant was identified by the thin-layer chromatography analysis. Gas chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV) methods were used to evaluate the degradation degree of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil. The biodegradation ability of a single strain was inferior to mixed strains. The latter revealed that the degradation of the crude oil was 92% and 85%, respectively, when cultured at 32 °C, 150 rpm for 20 days. The hardest degraded isoprenoid alkane (pristane) could easily be degraded by these mixed strains. The effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth of isolated strains was also studied, and the results demonstrate that crude oil-degrading bacteria isolated in the present study have shown strong endurance to Cd2+ (IC50 were 228.80 mg L−1 and 97.74 mg L−1) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dut-lxm0725 and Rhodococcus erythropolis Dut-lxm1018 strains, respectively. The above results suggest that present wild strains could have a good application prospect in bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil.


Bio-surfactant Gas chromatography Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodococcus erythropolis Thin-layer chromatography Cd2+ endurance 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41603069) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities Grants from Dalian University of Technology (DUT14QY48, DUT15QY54).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13762_2018_1945_MOESM1_ESM.docx (201 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 201 kb)


  1. Brinkmann D, Röhrs J, Schügerl K (1998) Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil in a rotating bioreactor part I: influence of oxygen saturation. Chem Eng Technol 21(2):168–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cai M, Yao J, Yang H, Wang R, Masakorala K (2013) Aerobic biodegradation process of petroleum and pathway of main compounds in water flooding well of Dagang oil field. Bioresour Technol 144:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cerqueira VS, Hollenbach EB, Maboni F, Vainstein MH, Camargo FAO, Peralba MDCR, Bento FM (2011) Biodegradation potential of oily sludge by pure and mixed bacterial cultures. Bioresour Technol 102(23):11003–11010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dussán J, Numpaque M (2012) Degradation of diesel, a component of the explosive ANFO, by bacteria selected from an open cast coal mine in La Guajira, Colombia. J Bioprocess Biotech 02(04):1–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gondal MA, Hussain T, Yamani ZH, Baig MA (2006) Detection of heavy metals in Arabian crude oil residue using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Talanta 69:1072–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Habib A, Mir MH, Tayebe BL, Hossein SZ, Sharafi H, Masoomi F, Moosavi-Movahedi AA, Ortiz A, Amanlou M, Noghabi KA (2012) Biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples: physicochemical and structural characteristics of isolated biosurfactant. J Biosci Bioeng 113(2):211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haryati J, Dalila MZ, Zaharah I (2012) Isolation of metal tolerant bacteria from polluted wastewater. Pertanika J Trop Agric Sci 35(3):647–662Google Scholar
  8. Hong L, Hang W, Chen XH, Liu N, Suriguge B (2014) Biosurfactant-producing strains in enhancing solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater. Environ Monit Assess 186:4581–4589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Howard WM, Wang GD, Christopher RG, Eric TP, Bin L, Quach VN (2004) PAHs and metals in the soils of inner-city and suburban New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 18:243–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ideriah TJK, Ikpe FN, Nwanjoku FN (2013) Distribution and speciation of heavy metals in crude oil contaminated soils from Niger Delta, Nigeria. World Environ 3(1):18–28Google Scholar
  11. Kisic L, Mesic S, Basic F, Brkic V, Mesic M, Durn G, Zgorelec Z, Bertovic L (2009) The effect of drilling fluids and crude oil on some chemical characteristics of soil and crops. Geoderma 149:209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koshlaf E, Shahsavari E, Aburto-Medina A, Taha M, Haleyur N, Makadia TH, Morrison PD, Ball AS (2016) Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 133:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lan G, Fan Q, Liu Y, Liu Y, Liu Y, Yin X, Luo M (2015) Effects of the addition of waste cooking oil on heavy crude oil biodegradation and microbial enhanced oil recovery using Pseudomonas sp. SWP-4. Biochem Eng J 103:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lian J, Ha Y, Huang L, Ju Y, Shi S, Liu L, Zhang R, Sui H, Li X (2011) Biological toxicity effect of petroleum contaminated soil before and after physicochemical remediation (Chinese). Environ Sci 32(3):870–874Google Scholar
  15. Liu B, Ju M, Liu J, Wu W, Li X (2016) Isolation, identification, and crude oil degradation characteristics of a high-temperature, hydrocarbon-degrading strain. Mar Pollut Bull 106:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maddela NR, Burgos R, Kadiyala V, Carrion AR, Bangeppagari M (2016) Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil in solid and slurry phase by mixed soil microorganisms isolated from Ecuadorian oil fields. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 108:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mittal A, Singh P (2009) Isolation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from soils contaminated with crude oil spills. Indian J Exp Biol 47(9):760–765Google Scholar
  18. Mohammed UM, Normala H (2015) Screening and isolation of heavy metal tolerant bacteria in industrial effluent. Proc Environ Sci 30:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Navjot K, Todd E, Andrew S, Megan H (2017) A review of germination and early growth as a proxy for plant fitness under petrogenic contamination knowledge gaps and recommendations. Sci Total Environ 603:728–744Google Scholar
  20. Okoh AI (2006) Biodegradation alternative in the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. Biotechnol Mol Biol Rev 1(2):38–50Google Scholar
  21. Pereira JSF, Moraes DP, Antes FG, Diehl LO, Santos MFP, Guimarães RCL, Fonseca TCO, Dressler VL, Flores ÉMM (2010) Determination of metals and metalloids in light and heavy crude oil by ICP-MS after digestion by microwave-induced combustion. Microchem J 96(1):4–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pi NR, Burgos R, Kadiyala V, Carrion AR, Bangeppagari M (2016a) Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil in solid and slurry phase by mixed soil microorganisms isolated from Ecuadorian oil fields. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 108:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pi Y, Meng L, Bao M, Sun P, Lu J (2016b) Degradation of crude oil and relationship with bacteria and enzymatic activities in laboratory testing. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 106:106–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pi Y, Chen B, Bao M, Fan F, Cai Q, Ze L, Zhang B (2017) Microbial degradation of four crude oil by biosurfactant producing strain Rhodococcus sp. Bioresour Technol 232:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rahman KSM, Banat IM, Thahira J, Thayumanavan T, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P (2002) Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant. Bioresour Technol 81(1):25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rizvi A, Khan MS (2017) Biotoxic impact of heavy metals on growth, oxidative stress and morphological changes in root structure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and stress alleviation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CPSB1. Chemosphere 185:942–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rodrigues LR, Teixeira JA, van der Mei HC, Oliveira R (2006) Physicochemical and functional characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Lactococcus lactis 53. Colloids Surf B 49:78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ron EZ, Rosenberg E (2014) Enhanced bioremediation of oil spills in the sea. Curr Opin Biotechnol 27:191–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rontani J, Bonin P (2011) Production of pristane and phytane in the marine environment: role of prokaryotes. Res Microbiol 162(9):923–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sangeeta C, Pinaki S (2011) Uranium biomineralization by a metal resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from contaminated mine waste. J Hazard Mater 186:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith MJ, Flowers TH, Duncan HJ, Alder J (2006) Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on germination and subsequent growth of grasses and legumes in freshly contaminated soil and soil with aged PAHs residues. Environ Pollut 141(3):519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sarwar N, Imran M, Shaheen MR, Ishaque W, Kamran MA, Matloob A, Rehim A, Hussain S (2017) Phytoremediation strategies for soils contaminated with heavy metals: modifications and future perspectives. Chemosphere 171:710–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tahseen R, Afzal M, Iqbal S, Shabir G, Khan QM, Khalid ZM, Banat IM (2016) Rhamnolipids and nutrients boost remediation of crude oil-contaminated soil by enhancing bacterial colonization and metabolic activities. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 115:192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tanti B, Buragohain AK (2013) Biodegradation of petroleum tar by Pseudomonas Spp. from oil field of Assam, India. Bioremediat J 17(2):107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Varjani SJ (2017) Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Bioresour Technol 223:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Varjani SJ, Rana DP, Jain AK, Bateja S, Upasani VN (2015) Synergistic ex situ biodegradation of crude oil by halotolerant bacterial consortium of indigenous strains isolated from on shore sites of Gujarat, India. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 103:116–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xia XH, Yu H, Yang ZF, Huang GH (2006) Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the natural waters of the Yellow River: effects of high sediment content on biodegradation. Chemosphere 65:457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zeng GM, Chen AW, Chen GQ, Hu XJ, Guan S, Cui S, Lu LH, Zou ZJ (2012) Responses of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to toxic pollutants: physiological flux, oxidative stress, and detoxification. Environ Sci Technol 46:7818–7825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang XS, Xu DJ, Zhu CY, Tserennyam L, Kerstin ES (2012) Isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing and crude oil degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Chem Eng J 209:138–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zloch M, Dominika T, Renata GK, Katarzyna H (2016) Synthesis of siderophores by plant-associated metallotolerant bacteria under exposure to Cd2+. Chemosphere 156:312–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Food and Environment, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of EducationDalian University of TechnologyPanjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute for Turbulence-Noise-Vibration Interaction and Control, Shenzhen Graduate SchoolHarbin Institute of TechnologyShenzhenPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations