Advertisement

Physicochemical parameters of water from selected boreholes utilized as potable water

  • N. C. Eboagu
  • V. E. Ajiwe
  • C. C. Odidika
Original Paper
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

The physicochemical characteristics of water samples from selected boreholes in six peri-urban communities were analysed to assess the quality of waters for suitability for human consumption. Samples were collected from sixteen different boreholes at interval of 1 month from July to September 2015 and from December 2015 to February 2016 to cover rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Samples were analysed for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, acidity, etc. using standard methods. The results were compared with World Health Organization standards. Data obtained for both rainy and dry seasons indicate pH ranges of 6.65–7.50 (mean value 7.09), temperature 27.00–29.00 °C (mean value 28.06 °C), dissolved oxygen 41.60–69.60 mg/l (mean value 49.53 mg/l), acidity 1.46–5.28 mg/l (mean value 3.16 mg/l), alkalinity 8.00–14.00 mg/l (mean value 10.82 mg/l), electrical conductivity 3.50–24.10 µS/cm (mean value 10.69 µS/cm), dissolved oxygen 41.60–69.60 mg/l (mean value 49.53 mg/l) and biochemical oxygen demand 8.00–33.60 mg/l (mean value 21.21 mg/l). Out of the 16 samples analysed, 12 were soft water while 4 were slightly hard water. Most of the physicochemical parameters, except dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand were within World Health Organization standard. The pollution index for physicochemical composition was mostly greater than 1, indicating heavy contamination of the waters. The results obtained in this study, especially biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen values, suggest that water from the boreholes sampled is not suitable for human consumption and may constitute a serious health risk to the consumers.

Keywords

Borehole Physicochemical characteristics Potable Water quality 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank all who assisted in conducting this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in any manner concerning the research that gave rise to the data herein discussed and published.

References

  1. Abbasi E, Khayatzadeh J (2010) The effects of heavy metals on aquatic animals. A paper presented at the 1st international applied geological congress, Islamic–Azad University Mashad-Branch, Iran, pp 26–28Google Scholar
  2. Adekunle IM, Adetunji MT, Banjoko OB, Gbadebo AM (2007) Assessment of groundwater quality in a tropical rural settlement in southwest, Nigeria. Int J Environ Resour Publ Health 4(4):307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adeyemi O, Oladiji AT, Oloyede OB (2007) Physicochemical and microbial characteristics of leachate contaminated groundwater. Asian J Biochem 2(5):343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agbaire PO, Oyibo PI (2009) Seasonal variation of some physicochemical properties of borehole water in Abraka, Nigeria. Afr J Pure Appl Chem 3(6):116–118Google Scholar
  5. Akpabio JJ, Ekpo FE (2013) Physicochemical and heavy metals quality assessment of borehole water in different residential areas of uyo metropolis. A case study of G.R.A and low income residential areas. Int J Sci Res 4(2):37–44Google Scholar
  6. Akpoveta OV, Okoh BE, Osakwe SA (2011) Quality assessment of borehole water used in the vicinities of benin, Edo State and Agbor, Delta State of Nigeria. Curr Res Chem 3(1):62–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Akubugwo EI, Ude VC, Ugbogu OI, Uhuegbu FO (2012) Physicochemical properties and heavy metal content of selected water sources in Ishiagu Ebonyi State, Nigeria. J Biodivs Environ Sci 2(2):21–27Google Scholar
  8. Ali I, Aboul- Enein HY (2006) Instrumental methods in metal ion speciation: chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and electrochemistry. Taylor & Francis Ltd., New York, p 376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ali I, Jain CK (2004) Advances in arsenic speciation techniques. Int J Environ Anal Chem 84(12):947–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ali I, Aboul- Enein HY, Gupta VK (2009) Nano chromatography and capillary electrophoresis: pharmaceutical and environmental analysis. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 49–52Google Scholar
  11. Ali I, Gupta VK, Khan TA, Asim M (2012) Removal of arsenate from aqueous solution by electro-coagulation method using Al–Fe electrodes. Int J Electrochem Sci 7:1898–1907Google Scholar
  12. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Alwarthan A, Asim M, Khan AT (2014) Removal of arsenic species from water by batch and column operations on bagasse fly ash. J Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(5):3218–3229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Sanagi MM (2015) Green synthesis of iron nano impregnated adsorbent for fast removal of fluoride from water. J Mol Liq 211:457–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Alharbi OML (2016a) Uptake of pantoprazole drug residue from water using novel synthesized composite iron nano adsorbent. J Mol Liq 218:465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Alwarthan A (2016b) Green synthesis of functionalized iron nano particles and molecular liquid phase adsorption of ametryn from water. J Mol Liq 221:1168–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Alwarthan A (2016c) Molecular uptake of congo red dye from water on iron composite nano particles. J Mol Liq 224:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Alwarthan A (2016d) Removal of secbumeton herbicide from water on composite nano adsorbent. Desalination Water Treat 57(22):10409–10421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Alwarthan A (2016e) Sorption, kinetics and thermodynamic studies of Atrazine herbicide removal from water using iron nano composite material. J Environ Sci Technol 13:733–742Google Scholar
  19. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Alwarthan A (2016f) Synthesis of composite iron nano adsorbent and removal of ibuprofen drug residue from water. J Mol Liq 219:858–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Alwarthan A (2017a) Uptake of propranolol on ionic liquid iron nano composite adsorbent: kinetic, thermodynamics and mechanism of adsorption. J Mol Liq 236:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Alwarthan A (2017b) Supra molecular mechanism of the removal of 17-B-estradiol endocrine disturbing pollution from water on functionalized iron nano particle. J Mol Liq 441:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ali I, Alharbi OML, Alothman ZA, Badjah AY, Basheer AA (2018) Artificial neural network modeling of amido black dye sorption on iron composite nano material: kinetics and thermodynamics studies. J Mol Liq 250:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1980) Methods for the examination of water and waste water, 5th edn. Washington, pp 182–256Google Scholar
  24. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1998) Standard method for examination of water and waste water, 20th edn. New York, pp 193–199Google Scholar
  25. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (1978) Annual book of ASTM standard for water. ASTM: Part 31, pp 310–318Google Scholar
  26. Asfaram A, Ghaedi M, Agarwal S, Tyagi I, Gupta VK (2015) Removal of basic dye Auramine- O by ZnS: Cu nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: optimization of parameters using response surface methodology with central composite design. J R Soc Chem Adv 5(24):18438–18450Google Scholar
  27. Association Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1980) Official methods for analysis of the AOAC, 13th edn. AOAC, Washington, pp 554–555Google Scholar
  28. Balch RT (1981) Measurement of turbidity with a spectrophotometer. Ind Eng Chem Anal 3(2):124–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Basheer AA (2018) Chemical chiral pollution: impact on the society and science and need of the regulations in the 21th century. Chirality 30(4):402–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Boominathan RA, Khan SM (1994) Effect of distillery effluents on pH, dissolved oxygen and phosphate content in Uyakundan channel water. Environ Ecol 12(4):850–853Google Scholar
  31. Burakova EA, Ali I, Dyachkova TP, Rukhov AV, Tugolukov EN (2018) Novel and economic method of carbon nano tubes synthesis on a nickel magnesium oxide catalyst using microwave radiation. J Mol Liq 253:340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chukwu GU (2008) Water quality assessment of borehole in Umuahia south local government area of Abia State, Nigeria. Pac J Sci Technol 9(2):592–598Google Scholar
  33. Dastkhoon M, Ghaedi M, Asfaram A, Goudarzi A, Gupta VK (2015) Ultra sound assisted adsorption of malachite green dye onto ZnS: Cu–NP–AC: equilibrium isotherms and kinetics studies-response surface optimization. Sep Purif Technol 156:780–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dehghani MH, Sanaei D, Ali I, Bhatnagar A (2016) Removal of chromium(vi) from aqueous solution using treated waste water newspaper as a low-cost adsorbent: kinetic modeling and Isotherm studies. J Mol Liq 215:671–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Essandoh M, Wolgemuth D, Pittman CU, Mohan D, Mlsna T (2017a) Phenoxy herbicide removal from aqueous solutions using fast pyrolysis switch grass bio char. Chemosphere 174:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Essandoh M, Wolgemuth D, Pittman CU, Mohan D, Mlsna T (2017b) Adsorption of metribuzin from aqueous solution using magnetic and non-magnetic sustainable low-cost bio char adsorbents. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(5):4577–4590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ezelioha NC, Ojiako EN, Orakwue FC (2011) Physicochemical studies and bacteriological assay of rural water resources (Boreholes) in Unubi, Nnewi—South Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Anachem J 5(1):964–968Google Scholar
  38. Girl SI, Singh AK (2015) Human health risk and ecological risk assessment of metals in fishes, shrimps and sediments from a tropical river. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12:2349–2362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta VK, Ali I (2012) Environmental water: advances in treatment, remediation and recycling. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 29–212Google Scholar
  40. Gupta VK, Tyagi I, Agarwal S, Sadegh H (2015) Experimental study of surfaces of hydrogen polymers HEMA, HEMA-EEMA-MA and PVA as adsorbent for removal of azo dyes from liquid phase. J Mol Liq 206:129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Igwilo IO, Maduabuchi UJ, Orisakwe OE (2006) Toxicological study of the Anam River in Otuocha, Anambra State, Nigeria. Archit Environ Occup Health 61(5):205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Karanth KR (1994) Groundwater assessment development and management. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, pp 75–79Google Scholar
  43. Kemppainen BW, Lenz SD, Mchel-Henney WH, Renden JA, Vodela JK (1997) Drinking water contaminants. Poult Sci 76:1474–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khan TA, Sharma S, Ali I (2011) Adsorption of rhodamine B dye from aqueous solution onto acid activated mango (magnifera indica) leaf powder: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J Toxicol Environ Health Sci 3:286–297Google Scholar
  45. Khan AE, Khan AT, Mukhlif AA (2012) Uptake of Cu2+ and Zn2+ from simulated waste water. Using muskmelon peel bio char: isotherm and kinetic studies. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:1668–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lokhande RS, Singare PU, Pimple DS (2011) Toxicity study of heavy metals pollutants in waste water effluent samples collected from Taloja industrial estate of Mumbai, India. Res Environ 1:3–19Google Scholar
  47. Mosley LM, Singh SI (2003) Trace metal levels in drinking water of Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. Spec Pac J Nat Sci 21:31–34Google Scholar
  48. Nekouei F, Nekouei S, Tyagi I, Gupta VK (2015) Kinetic thermodynamic and isotherm studies for acid blue 129 removal from liquid using copper oxide nanoparticle—modified activated carbon as a novel adsorbent. J Mol Liq 201:124–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nikfar E, Dehghani MH, Mahvi AH, Rastkari N, Gupta VK (2016) Removal of Bisphenol A from aqueous solutions using ultrasonic waves and hydrogen peroxide. J Mol Liq 213:332–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Obi CN, Okocha CO (2007) Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of selected borehole water in world bank housing Estate Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria. J Eng Appl Sci 2(5):920–929Google Scholar
  51. Okoye AC, Okoye CO (2008) Urban domestic solid waste management. Rex Charles and Patrick Limited Nimo, Anambra State, pp 5–7Google Scholar
  52. Onwughara NI, Ajiwe VIE, Nnabuenyi HO (2013) Physicochemical studies of water from selected boreholes in Umuahia North local government area of Abia State, Nigeria. Int J Pure Appl Biosci 1(3):34–44Google Scholar
  53. Pearce F (2006) When the rivers run dry: water—the defining crisis of the twenty-first century. Beacon Press, Boston, pp 88–89Google Scholar
  54. Robati D, Mirza B, Rajabi M, Mordi O, Gupta VK (2016) Removal of hazardous dyes basic Red 12 and methyl orange using graphene oxide as an adsorbent from aqueous phase. Chem Eng J 284:687–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. World Health Organisation (WHO) (1993) Guidelines for drinking water quality. Revision of the 1984 guideline. Final Task Group Meeting, Geneva, pp 21–25Google Scholar
  56. World Health Organisation (WHO) (2004) Water sanitation and health programme. Managing water in the home: accelerated health gains from improved water sources, pp 112–125Google Scholar
  57. World Health Organisation (WHO) (2006) Guidelines for drinking water quality, first addendum to 3rd ed. Recommendations, Geneva, pp 105–110Google Scholar
  58. World Health Organisation (WHO); United Nation Children Fund (UNICEF) (2012) Progress on drinking water and sanitation WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York, pp 122–125Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pure and Industrial ChemistryNnamdi Azikiwe UniversityAwkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations