Physicochemical parameters of water from selected boreholes utilized as potable water

  • N. C. EboaguEmail author
  • V. E. Ajiwe
  • C. C. Odidika
Original Paper


The physicochemical characteristics of water samples from selected boreholes in six peri-urban communities were analysed to assess the quality of waters for suitability for human consumption. Samples were collected from sixteen different boreholes at interval of 1 month from July to September 2015 and from December 2015 to February 2016 to cover rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Samples were analysed for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, acidity, etc. using standard methods. The results were compared with World Health Organization standards. Data obtained for both rainy and dry seasons indicate pH ranges of 6.65–7.50 (mean value 7.09), temperature 27.00–29.00 °C (mean value 28.06 °C), dissolved oxygen 41.60–69.60 mg/l (mean value 49.53 mg/l), acidity 1.46–5.28 mg/l (mean value 3.16 mg/l), alkalinity 8.00–14.00 mg/l (mean value 10.82 mg/l), electrical conductivity 3.50–24.10 µS/cm (mean value 10.69 µS/cm), dissolved oxygen 41.60–69.60 mg/l (mean value 49.53 mg/l) and biochemical oxygen demand 8.00–33.60 mg/l (mean value 21.21 mg/l). Out of the 16 samples analysed, 12 were soft water while 4 were slightly hard water. Most of the physicochemical parameters, except dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand were within World Health Organization standard. The pollution index for physicochemical composition was mostly greater than 1, indicating heavy contamination of the waters. The results obtained in this study, especially biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen values, suggest that water from the boreholes sampled is not suitable for human consumption and may constitute a serious health risk to the consumers.


Borehole Physicochemical characteristics Potable Water quality 



The authors wish to thank all who assisted in conducting this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in any manner concerning the research that gave rise to the data herein discussed and published.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pure and Industrial ChemistryNnamdi Azikiwe UniversityAwkaNigeria

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