Application of water quality indices for evaluating water quality and anthropogenic impact assessment
- 26 Downloads
Influences of different environmental variables are predicted to increase during the next century in association with abrupt changes in water quality. Determining the magnitude of such effects is difficult because variation of environmental variables is generally unpredictable, and thus, available data are rare. In this study, water quality monitoring was conducted based on new operational indicators and multi-metric indices to evaluate water quality status and biological response at temporal and spatial scales in west coastal water of Malaysia. The trophic state index ranged from 6 to 8 in temporal and spatial scales and suggested a highly productive system with a high trophic level, characteristic of a low-quality system. The eutrophication index varied from 0.65 to 4.45 and most of the samples had a bad (49%) or poor (45.5%) water quality, and only 5.3% of the water samples had a moderate productive system with a moderate trophic level. In West Port, anthropogenic sources and natural processes are likely to contribute to increase in nutrient concentrations and trophic level in the water column. During the study period, no secondary symptoms or eutrophication events occurred which could be due to water exchange and hydrodynamic turbulence, which prevented the eutrophication development at this region.
KeywordsTrophic status Water quality assessment Multi-index approach Eutrophication West port
The authors’ gratitude goes to support of the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and high impact research grant of university Malaya.
All authors contributed equally to this work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Amengual-Morro C, Moyā Niell G, Martínez-Taberner A (2011) Phytoplankton as bioindicator for waste stabilization ponds. J Environ Manag 30:16Google Scholar
- Bellingham K (2012) Physicochemical parameters of natural waters. Stevens Water Monitoring Systems, Inc., PortlandGoogle Scholar
- Carl JS (2006) Coastal pollution: effects on living resources and humans. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton AD (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Dong Y (2013) Application of integrated constructed wetlands for contaminant treatment and diffusionGoogle Scholar
- EPA (2001) Nutrient criteria technical guidance manual estuarine coastal marine water. Office of Water of United States Environmental Protection Agency, 4304, EPA-822-B-01-003Google Scholar
- Liu D, Morrison R, West R (2014) Phytoplankton assemblages as an indicator of water quality in seven temperate estuarine lakes in South-East Australia. In: Ansari AA, Sarvajeet SG, Lanza GR, Rast W (eds) Eutrophication: causes, consequences and control. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 191–202Google Scholar
- National coastal condition report III. EPA/842-R-08-002. http://www.epa.gov/nccr (2008)
- Neary JP (2008) Water quality for ecosystem and human health, 2nd edn. United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS), TorontoGoogle Scholar
- Parsons TR, Maita Y, Lalli CM (1984) Manual of chemical and biological methods for seawater analysis. Pergamon Press Inc., PergamonGoogle Scholar
- Rezayi M, Heng LY, Abdi MM, Noran N, Esmaeili C (2013) A thermodynamic study on the complex formation between tris (2-pyridyl) methylamine (tpm) with Fe 2, Fe 3, Cu 2 and &&&Cr 3 cations in water, acetonitrile binary solutions using the conductometric method. Int J Electrochem Sci 8:6922–6932Google Scholar
- Tavakoly Sany SB, Hashim R, Salleh A, Safari O, Mehdinia A, Rezayi M (2013) Risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the West Port semi-enclosed basin (Malaysia). Environ Earth Sci 71:1–14Google Scholar
- Tehrani GM, Hashim R, Sulaiman AH, Sany BT, Salleh A, Jazani RK, Barandoust RF (2013) Distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in musa bay sediments (northwest of the persian gulf). Environ Prot Eng 39(1):115–128Google Scholar
- Tehrani GM, Rosli H, Sulaiman AH, Tavakoly Sany B, Salleh A, Owfi F, Monazami Tehrani ZH (2014) Petroleum hydrocarbon assessment in the wastewaters of petrochemical special economic zone and sediment benchmark calculation of the coastal area-northwest of the Persian Gulf. Iran J Fish Sci 13(1):119–134Google Scholar
- Vollenweider RA, Giovanardi F, Montanari G, Rinaldi A (1998) Characterization of the trophic conditions of marine coastal waters with special reference to the NW Adriatic Sea: proposal for a trophic scale, turbidity and generalized water quality index. Environmetrics 9(3):329–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Washington State Department of Ecology (2007) Evaluating the toxicity and assessing the carcinogenic risk of environmental mixtures using toxicity equivalency factors, 8. https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/clarc/FocusSheets/tef.pdf
- Yap (2005) Ecology of Klang Strait. In: Sasekumar A, Chong VC (eds) Pollution. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, pp 225–235Google Scholar