Application of water quality indices for evaluating water quality and anthropogenic impact assessment

  • S. B. Tavakoly Sany
  • G. Monazami
  • M. Rezayi
  • M. Tajfard
  • H. BorgheipourEmail author
Original Paper


Influences of different environmental variables are predicted to increase during the next century in association with abrupt changes in water quality. Determining the magnitude of such effects is difficult because variation of environmental variables is generally unpredictable, and thus, available data are rare. In this study, water quality monitoring was conducted based on new operational indicators and multi-metric indices to evaluate water quality status and biological response at temporal and spatial scales in west coastal water of Malaysia. The trophic state index ranged from 6 to 8 in temporal and spatial scales and suggested a highly productive system with a high trophic level, characteristic of a low-quality system. The eutrophication index varied from 0.65 to 4.45 and most of the samples had a bad (49%) or poor (45.5%) water quality, and only 5.3% of the water samples had a moderate productive system with a moderate trophic level. In West Port, anthropogenic sources and natural processes are likely to contribute to increase in nutrient concentrations and trophic level in the water column. During the study period, no secondary symptoms or eutrophication events occurred which could be due to water exchange and hydrodynamic turbulence, which prevented the eutrophication development at this region.


Trophic status Water quality assessment Multi-index approach Eutrophication West port 



The authors’ gratitude goes to support of the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and high impact research grant of university Malaya.

Author’s contributions

All authors contributed equally to this work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

13762_2018_1894_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 20 kb)


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. B. Tavakoly Sany
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Monazami
    • 3
  • M. Rezayi
    • 4
  • M. Tajfard
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. Borgheipour
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of HealthMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Social Determinants of Health Research CenterMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.Department of Health Safety and Environment, School of Health Safety and EnvironmentShahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health ServicesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  5. 5.Department of Environment, Parand BranchIslamic Azad UniversityParandIran

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