Advertisement

Synthesis and photoelectrochemical characterization of KZn2(HPO4)PO4: application to rhodamine B photodegradation under solar light

  • R. BagtacheEmail author
  • K. Abdmeziem
  • K. Dib
  • M. Trari
Original Paper

Abstract

This work reports for the first time the study of the physical and photoelectrochemical properties of KZn2 (HPO4) PO4 nanopowder, prepared by hydrothermal route at 453 K. The as-synthesized compound crystallizes in a triclinic system (space group: P\(\bar{1}\)) with the lattice constants: a = 5.2060(2) Å, b = 8.8524(3) Å, c = 9.4039(3) Å, α = 96.9810(10)°, β = 101.7410(10)°, γ = 106.8130(10)° and a crystallite size of ~ 90 nm. The observed direct optical transition of 2.88 eV is due to O2−: 2p → Zn2+: 4s charge transfer; a further indirect transition at 5.80 eV is noticed. The electrical conductivity follows an exponential type law: σ = σo exp (− 0.08 eV/kT) in the temperature range (385–500 K), with an electronic hopping through mixed valences, while the negative thermo-power indicates n-type behavior. The capacitance measurement at pH ~ 7 gives a flat band potential of − 0.13 VSCE for the conduction band, which derives from Zn2+: 4s orbital and a donor density of 3.18 × 1019 cm−3. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the predominance of the faradic charge transfer. In order to support the photoelectrochemical results, the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of KZn2(HPO4)PO4, under solar light, is conducted. The results indicate 40% conversion after 300 min of irradiation time. A degradation mechanism is proposed to explain the mineralization. The photocatalytic RhB degradation obeys to a second-order kinetic model with a rate constant of 1.48 × 10−3 mol−1 L min−1.

Keywords

KZn2(HPO4)PO4 nanopowder Hydrothermal synthesis Semiconductor Photoelectrochemical Rhodamine B 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr D. Meziani for collecting crystallography data and identification of as-synthesized compound and MHESR (Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research), Algeria, for the financial support.

Supplementary material

13762_2018_1883_MOESM1_ESM.docx (50 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 50 kb)

References

  1. Aazam ES, Mohamed RM (2013) Environmental remediation of direct blue dyes solutions by photocatalytic oxidation with cuprous oxide. J Alloys Compd 577:550–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abid MF, Zablouk MA, Abid-Alameer AM (2012) Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration, Iranian. J Environ Health Sci Eng 9:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abo-Farha SA (2010) Comparative study of oxidation of some azo dyes by different advanced oxidation processes: fenton, fenton-like, photo-fenton and photo-fenton-like. J Am Sci 6:128–142Google Scholar
  4. Al-Kahtani AA (2017) Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B dye in wastewater using gelatin/cus/PVA nanocomposites under solar light irradiation. J Biomater Nanobiotechnol 8:66–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Averbuch-Pouchot MT (1979) Structure du monophosphate acide de potassium-zinc: KZn2H(PO4)2. Acta Cryst B 35:1452–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagtache R, Abdmeziem K, Rekhila G, Trari M (2016) Synthesis and semiconducting properties of Na2MnPO4F. Application to degradation of Rhodamine B under UV-light. Mater Sci Semicond Process 51:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Byrappa K, Subramani AK, Ananda S, Lokanatha Rai KM, Dinesh R, Yoshimura M (2006) Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B dye using hydrothermally synthesized ZnO. Bull Mater Sci 29:433–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chavez AV, Neno TM, Hannooman L, Harrison WTA (1999) Tetrahedral-network organo-zincophosphates: syntheses and structures of (N2C6H14)·Zn(HPO4)2·H2O·H3N(CH2)3NH3·Zn2(HPO4)3, and (N2C6H14)·Zn3(HPO4)4. J Solid State Chem 147:584–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen Y, He L, Li J, Cheng X, Lu H (2016) An inexact bi-level simulation-optimization model for conjunctive regional renewable energy planning and air pollution control for electric power generation systems. Appl Energy 183:969–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chidambaram D, Neeraj S, Natarajan S, Rao CNR (1999) Open-framework zinc phosphates synthesized in the presence of structure-directing organic amines. J Solid State Chem 147:154–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cotto-Maldonado M (2013) Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine-B under UV–visible light irradiation using different nanostructured catalysts. Am Chem Sci J 3:178–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Echavarrıá A, Masseron AS, Paillaud J-L, Gramlich V, Saldarriaga C (2003) Synthesis and characterisation of the layered zinc phosphate KZn2(PO4)(HPO4). Inorg Chim Acta 343:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. el Alouani M, Alehyen S, EL Achouri M, Taibi M (2018) Removal of cationic dye-methylene Blue- from aqueous solution by adsorption on fly ash-based geopolymer. J Mater Environ Sci 9:32–46Google Scholar
  14. Fernández LT, Khainakova OA, Espina A, Amghouz Z, Khainakov SA, Alfonso BF, Blanco JA, García JR, Granda SG (2015) Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate via a metastable one-dimensional phase. J Solid State Chem 225:340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hachoumi I, El-Ouahabi I, Slimani R, Cagnon B, El Haddad M, El Antri S, Lazar S (2017) Adsorption studies with a new biosorbent ensis siliqua shell powder for removal two textile dyes from aqueous solution. JMES 8:1448–1459Google Scholar
  16. Hu X, Fu X, Xu J, Wang C (2011) A novel layered organic polymer-inorganic hybrid zinc poly(styrene-phenylvinylphosphonate)-phosphate immobilized chiral salen Mn(III) catalyst large-scale asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins. J Org Chem 696:2797–2804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hulvey Z, Falcao EHL, Eckert J, Cheetham AK (2009) Enhanced H2 adsorption enthalpy in the low-surface area, partially fluorinated coordination polymer Zn5(triazole)6 (tetrafluoroterephthalate)2 (H2O)2·4H2O. J Mater Chem 19:4307–4309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jahagirdara AA, Zulfiqar Ahmed MN, Donappac N, Nagabhushanad H, Nagabhushanae BM (2014) Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B using nanocrystalline α-Fe2O3. J Mater Environ Sci 5:1426–1433Google Scholar
  19. Jhang PC, Chuang NT, Wang SL (2010) Layered zinc phosphates with photoluminescence and photochromism: chemistry in deep eutectic solvents. Angew Chem Int Ed 49:4200–4204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaizra S, Louafi Y, Bellal B, Trari M, Rekhila G (2015) Electrochemical growth of tin(II) oxide films: application in photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. Mater Sci Semicond Process 30:554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lu YY, Zhang YY, Zhang J (2016) In situ loading of CuS nanoflowers on rutile TiO2 surface and their improved photocatalytic performance. Appl Surf Sci 370:312–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Meziani D, Abdmeziem K, Bouacida S, Trari M, Merazig H (2016) Photo-electrochemical and physical characterizations of a new single crystal POM-based material Application to Rhodamine B photodegradation. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 147(2016):46–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ning ZL, Li WJ, Sun CY, Chen P, Chang ZD (2013) Synthesis and optical properties of zinc phosphate microspheres. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 23:718–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rajalakshmi S, Pitchaimuthu S, Kannan N, Velusamy P (2014) Enhanced catalytic activity of metal oxides/β-cyclodextrin nanocomposites for decoloration of rhodamine B dye under solar light irradiation. Appl Water Sci 1:115–127Google Scholar
  25. Raliya R, Avery C, Chakrabarti S, Biswas P (2017) Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye by pristine titanium, zinc oxide, and graphene oxide nanostructures and their composites under visible light irradiation. Appl Nanosci 7:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Roumila Y, Abdmeziem K, Rekhila G, Trari M (2016) Semiconducting properties of hydrothermally synthesized libethenite application to orange G photodegradation. Mater Sci Semicond Process 41:470–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ruzimuradov O, Sharipov K, Yarbekov A, Saidov K, Hojamberdiev M, Prasad RM, Cherkashinin G, Riedel R (2015) A facile preparation of dual-phase nitrogen-doped TiO2–SrTiO3 macroporous monolithic photocatalyst for organic dye photodegradation under visible light. J Eur Ceram Soc 35:1815–1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Saranya M, Ramachandran R, Samuel EJJ, Jeongc S, Grace A (2015) Enhanced visible light photocatalytic reduction of organic pollutant and electrochemical properties of CuS catalyst. Powder Technol 279:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sikdar S, Pattanayek S, Ghorai TK (2017) Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B in water by visible light irradiated BMZ nanocomposite. Adv Mater Process 2:107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sobahia TR, Amin MS, Mohameda RM (2017) Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye by F-doped Co3O4 nanowires. Desalin Water Treat 74:346–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sun M, Li D, Chen Y, Chen W, Li W (2009) Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of calcium antimony oxide hydroxide for the degradation of dyes in water. J Phys Chem C 113:13825–13831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tripathi B, Bhatt P, Chandra Kanth P, Yadav P, Desai B, Kumar Pandey M (2015) Temperature induced structural, electrical and optical changes in solution processed perovskite material: application in photovoltaics. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 132:615–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vijayakumar G, Tamilarasan R, Dharmendirakumar M (2012) Adsorption, kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the removal of basic dye rhodamine-B from aqueous solution by the use of natural adsorbent perlite. J Mater Environ Sci 3:157–170Google Scholar
  34. Wang M, Huang J, Tong Z, Li W, Chen J (2013) Reduced graphene oxide-cuprous oxide composite via facial deposition for photocatalytic dye-degradation. J Alloys Compd 568:26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang GM, Li JH, Zhang X, Jiao JQ, Bao ZZ, Zhao XM, Jiang WW, Wang YX, Lin JH (2014) Facile in situ syntheses of new templates and formations of three zinc phosphates. Inorg Chem Commun 46:295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang GM, Li JH, Gao CL, Zhang JC, Zhang X, Bao ZZ, Wang YX, Lin JH (2015) Synthesis and characterization of a novel inorganic-organic hybrid open-framework zinc phosphate with 16-ring channels. Solid State Sci 39:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Weast RC (1978) Handbook of chemistry and physics, 58th edn. CRS Press Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Xing Y, Li G, Meng H, Shi Z, Liu Y, Wei X, Yang Y, Pang W (2004) Synthesis and structure of a new layered zinc phosphate [C6N2H16]3.5[Zn14(PO4)7(HPO4)7] in the presence of trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane, Inorg. Chem Commun 7:475–477Google Scholar
  39. Yizhong C, Hongwei L, Li J, Guohe H, Li H (2016) Regional planning of new-energy systems within multi-period and multi-option contexts: a case study of Fengtai, Beijing, China. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 65:356–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang J, Yao ZG, Dai JC, Fu ZY (2013) A hybrid metal phosphate-phosphite materiel grafted with electron deficient organic components showing interesting fluorescent and photosensitive properties. J Mater Chem A 1:4945–4948CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Electrochemistry-Corrosion, Metallurgy and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUSTHBAlgiersAlgeria
  2. 2.Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of ChemistryUSTHBAlgiersAlgeria

Personalised recommendations