Phosphonium-based hydrophobic ionic liquids with fluorous anions for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

  • Z. UllahEmail author
  • M. A. Bustam
  • Z. Man
  • A. S. Khan
  • A. Sarwono
  • N. Muhammad
  • M. Farooq
  • S. N. Shah
  • P. Ahmad
  • S. Haider
Original Paper


In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) containing the phosphonium cation and four different types of fluorous anions were synthesized and characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyser (CHNS) and thermogravimetric techniques. The catalytic transesterification properties of the prepared ILs were investigated through the synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). The biodiesel synthesis was performed in two-step processes. Initially, the WCO was esterified with sulphuric acid to reduce its acid value (0.7 mg KOH/g). Later the transesterification reaction was carried out with the prepared ILs, and the process was optimized with respect to IL types, catalyst loading, methanol–oil ratios, temperature, agitation speed and time. Tetrabutylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([TBP][NTf2]) was identified as a promising catalyst with the highest yield of biodiesel up to 81% at 4.5 wt% of IL loading, 18:1 ratio of methanol:WCO, 10 h of treatment time, 60 °C heating temperature and 600 rpm of agitation speed. The obtained product of biodiesel was characterized and analysed by different techniques, and its physicochemical properties were further determined using the known standard methods of American Society for Testing and Materials and European standards (ASTM and EN).


Biodiesel Characterization Optimization Phosphonium-based ionic liquids Physiochemical properties 



The author gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance provided by the Centre of Research in Ionic Liquids (CORIL), all the research officers, Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia.

Supplementary material

13762_2018_1735_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.9 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1899 kb)


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Ullah
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. A. Bustam
    • 1
  • Z. Man
    • 1
  • A. S. Khan
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. Sarwono
    • 1
  • N. Muhammad
    • 4
  • M. Farooq
    • 5
  • S. N. Shah
    • 6
  • P. Ahmad
    • 7
  • S. Haider
    • 8
  1. 1.Centre of Research in Ionic Liquid, Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi PETRONASTronohMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryBalochistan University of IT, Engineering and Management Sciences (BUITEMS)QuettaPakistan
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Science and TechnologyBannuPakistan
  4. 4.Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical MaterialsCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyLahorePakistan
  5. 5.National Centre of Excellence in Physical ChemistryUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  6. 6.Department of Chemical EngineeringCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyLahorePakistan
  7. 7.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Azad Jammu & KashmirMuzaffarabadPakistan
  8. 8.Department of Chemical Engineering, College of EngineeringKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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