MCM-41 templating of semiconductors onto microwave-induced KOH-modified biomass-activated carbon for photo-mineralization of tetracycline: response surface methodology

  • M. O. OmorogieEmail author
  • A. E. Ofomaja
Original Paper


The quest for the availability of potable water in the sub-Sahara Africa is the trigger and impetus for this research work. Hence, this research work highlights the application of a semiconductor photocatalyst (MCM-41 silica templating of Al2O3/ZnO/SnO2/TiO2 onto microwave-induced KOH-modified Pinus sylvestris cellulosic biomass-activated carbon) for photo-mineralization of tetracycline (TC) by the response surface methodology/central composite design approach/technique. This semiconductor photocatalyst’s surface microstructures were studied using Fourier transform-attenuated total reflectance, thermogravimetric analysis and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller/Barrett–Joyner–Halenda nitrogen sorptiometry–desorptiometry at cryogenic temperature (77 K). The results obtained from this microstructural analysis showed that the semiconductor photocatalyst was a thermally stable and multi-functional material that photo-degraded 99.25% of 20 mg/L of TC, with a half-life of 3.52 min and 9.93 mg of TC photo-degraded per g of semiconductor photocatalyst. This also showed that this semiconductor photocatalyst was efficient and, thus, a suitable and promising photocatalytic candidate for the degradation of other antibiotics other than TC in future perspective.


Cellulosic biomass Central composite design Micro-induced Photocatalysis Photocatalyst Pinus sylvestris Semiconductors 



Dr. Martins O. Omorogie (Postdoctoral Research Fellow: VUT/Staff/2015709) sincerely appreciates the research fund magnanimously provided by Vaal University of Technology (VUT), Vanderbijlpark, Gauteng Province, South Africa that was used to carry out this research.

Supplementary material

13762_2018_1689_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Adsorption and Catalysis Research Laboratory, Department of ChemistryVaal University of TechnologyVanderbijlparkSouth Africa
  2. 2.Environmental and Chemical Processes Research Laboratory, Centre for Chemical and Biochemical Research, Department of Chemical SciencesRedeemer’s UniversityEdeNigeria

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