Advertisement

Heavy metal bioaccumulation and Fulton’s K condition indices in Scylla serrata (Forskål) in relation to sex

  • J. M. Harris
  • P. Vinobaba
  • R. K. A. Kularatne
  • C. E. Kankanamge
Original Paper

Abstract

This article discusses the temporal variation and stress of heavy metal accumulation in Scylla serrata (Forskål) with reference to sexes. Cd and Sn were undetected (i.e., below the method detection limits of 0.001 Cd mg/kg wet weight and 0.005 Sn mg/kg) in both sexes. However, Scylla serrata (Forskål) consistently exhibited high accumulation of As, Pb, Hg and Zn. Zn was the most abundant metal in both sexes. (Average Zn content in males and females was around 40.76 ± 2.51 and 45.10 ± 2.24 mg/kg wet weight, respectively.) Pb and Hg levels exceeded EU and Sri Lankan admissible limits on many occasions (0.02 Pb mg/kg wet weight and 0.5 Hg mg/kg wet weight). Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of As and Zn from the water > 1 in both sexes indicating effective direct uptake from the water. However, temporal variation of Zn and Hg and the interaction between temporal variation of these metals and the two sexes were insignificant (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, temporal variation of Pb (P < 0.008) and As (P < 0.05) and the interaction between temporal variation and gender were significant with females exhibiting higher BCFs (As P = 0.002, and Pb P = 0.003). However, there was no statistical significance (P = 0.355) in the Fulton’s K condition index in relation to gender despite females exhibiting higher As and Pb levels. (Highest As and Pb levels in females were around 5.9 As mg/kg wet weight and 0.12 Pb mg/kg wet weight.) Therefore, Fulton’s K condition index is not a reliable indicator regarding stress in crabs due to heavy metal accumulation.

Keywords

Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) Fulton’s K condition indices Heavy metals Scylla serrata (Forskål) Sex Stress 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by a Grant from the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka (NSF Grant No. NSF/SCH/2015/05). We thank the two anonymous reviewers and Prof. Majid Abbaspour for their useful comments and suggestions that enabled us to drastically improve our manuscript.

References

  1. Aguilar CA, Montalvo C, Rodríguez L, Cerón JG, Cerón RM (2012) American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and sediments as a coastal zone pollution monitor by heavy metals. Int J Environ Sci Technol 9:579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcorlo P, Otero M, Crehuet M, Baltanás A, Montes C (2006) The use of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Girard) as indicator of the bioavailability of heavy metals in environmental monitoring in the River Guadiamar (SW, Spain). Sci Total Environ 366:380–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali I, Aboul-Enein HY (2006) Instrumental methods in metal ions speciation: chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and electrochemistry. Taylor & Francis Ltd., New York. ISBN 0-8493-3736-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali I, Aboul-Enein HY, Gupta VK (2009) Nano chromatography and capillary electrophoresis pharmaceutical and environmental analyses. Wiley, Hoboken. ISBN 978-0-470-17851-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashraf MA, Maah MJ, Yusoff I (2012) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species collected from former tin mining catchment. Int J Environ Res 6:209–218Google Scholar
  6. Beltrame MO, De Marco SG, Marcovecchio JE (2010) Influences of sex, habitat, and seasonality on heavy-metal concentrations in the burrowing crab (Neohelice granulata) from a coastal lagoon in Argentina. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:746–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buzzi NS, Oliva AL, Arias AH, Marcovecchio JE (2017) Assessment of trace metal accumulation in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) from a South American temperate estuary. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:15781–15793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Canli M, Furness RW (1993a) Toxicity of heavy metals dissolved in seawater and influences of sex and size on metal accumulation and tissue distribution in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Mar Environ Res 36:217–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Canli M, Furness RW (1993b) Heavy metals in tissues of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus: effects of sex, size and season. Chem Ecol 8:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canli M, Furness RW (1995) Mercury and cadmium uptake from seawater and from food by the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:819–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Canli M, Kalay M, Ay Ö (2001) Metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni) concentrations in tissues of a fish Sardina pilchardus and prawn Penaeus japonicus from three stations on the Mediterranean Sea. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 67:75–82Google Scholar
  12. Firat Ö, Gök G, Çoğun HY, Yüzereroğlu TA, Kargin F (2008) Concentrations of Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn and Fe in crab Charybdis longicollis and shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus from the Iskenderun Bay, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess 147:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frías-Espericueta MG, Izaguirre-Fierro G, Valenzuela-Quińonez F, Osuna-López JI, Voltolina D, López-López G, Muy-Rangel MD, Rubio-Castro W (2007) Metal content of the Gulf of California blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 79:214–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Froese R (2006) Cube law, condition factor and weight–length relationships: history, meta-analysis and recommendations. J Appl Ichthyol 22:241–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harris JM, Vinobaba P, Deepananda KHMA (2013) Ichthyo diversity of Batticaloa lagoon, Sri Lanka and needs for their conservation. J Environ 2:25–33Google Scholar
  16. Harris JM, Vinobaba P, Kularatne RKA, Kankanamge CE (2016) Spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacteria in Batticaloa Lagoon. J Environ Sci 47:211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kannan K, Yasunaga Y, Iwata H, Ichihashi H, Tanabe S, Tatsukawa R (1995) Concentrations of heavy metals, organochlorines, and organotins in horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, from Japanese coastal waters. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 28:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kargın F, Dönmez A, Ҫoğun HY (2001) Distribution of heavy metals in different tissues of the shrimp Penaeus semiculatus and Metapenaeus monocerus from the Iskenderun Gulf, Turkey: seasonal variations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 66:102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kerambrun E, Henry F, Cornille V, Courcot L, Amara R (2013) A combined measurement of metal bioaccumulation and condition indices in juvenile European flounder, Platichthys flesus, from European estuaries. Chemosphere 91:498–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kouba A, Buřič M, Kozák P (2010) Bioaccumulation and effects of heavy metals in crayfish: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 211:5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kularatne RKA (2014) Phytoremediation of Pb by Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh and spatial variation of Pb in the Batticaloa Lagoon, Sri Lanka during driest periods: a field study. Int J Phytorem 16:509–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kularatne RKA, Harris JM, Vinobaba P, Kankanamge CE (2017) Bio-transfer factors and temporal variation of heavy metals in different sexes of three species of edible brackish water fish. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:18680–18690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kumar KA, Achyuthan H (2007) Heavy metal accumulation in certain marine animals along the East Coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. J Exp Biol 28:637–643Google Scholar
  24. Le Vay L (2001) Ecology and management of mud Crab Scylla spp. Asian Fish Sci 14:101–111Google Scholar
  25. MacFarlane GR, Booth DJ, Brown KR (2000) The semaphore crab, Heloecius cordiformis: bio-indication potential for heavy metals in estuarine systems. Aquat Toxicol 50:153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Madany IM, Wahab AA, Al-Alawi Z (1996) Trace metals concentrations in marine organisms from the coastal areas of Bahrain, Arabian Gulf. Water Air Soil Pollut 91:233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mantelatto FLM, Avelar WEP, Silva DML, Tomazeli AC, Lopez JLC, Shuhama T (1999) Heavy metals in the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) (Crustacea, Penaeidae) from Ubatuba Bay, Sâo Paulo, Brazil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 62:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mirera DO, Mtile A (2009) Preliminary study on the response of mangrove mud crab (Scylla serrata) to different feed types under drive in cage culture system. J Ecol Nat Environ 1:7–14Google Scholar
  29. Mishra S, Bhalke S, Saradhi IV, Suseela B, Tripathi RM, Pandit GG, Puranik VD (2007) Trace metals and organometals in selected marine species and preliminary risk assessment to human beings in Thane Creek area, Mumbai. Chemosphere 69:972–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mohapatra A, Mohanty RK, Mohanty SK, Dey SK (2010) Carapace width and weight relationships, condition factor, relative condition factor and gonado-somatic index (GSI) of mud crabs (Scylla spp.) from Chilika Lagoon, India. Indian J Mar Sci 39:120–127Google Scholar
  31. Poovachiranon S (1992) Biological studies of the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forskal) of the mangrove ecosystem in the Andaman Sea, 49–57. In: Angell CA (ed) The Mud Crab. Report of the Seminar on the Mud Crab Culture and Trade Held at Surat Thani, Thailand, 5–8 Nov 1991. Bay of Bengal Programme, Madras, India, pp 246Google Scholar
  32. Sastre MP, Reyes P, Ramos H, Romero R, Rivera J (1999) Heavy metal bioaccumulation in Puerto Rican blue crabs (Callinectes spp.). Bull Mar Sci 64:209–217Google Scholar
  33. Senadheera SPSD, Pathiratne KAS (2003) Bioaccumulation potential of three heavy metals in shrimp, Penaeus monodon from different fractions of the culture environment. Sri Lankan J Aquat Sci 10:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Senadheera SPSD, Pathiratne KAS (2005) Assessment of toxic heavy metals in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon cultured in the northwestern province of Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan J Aquat Sci 10:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Silva CAR, Rainbow PS, Smith BD (2003) Biomonitoring of trace metal contamination in mangrove-lined Brazilian coastal systems using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae: comparative study of regions affected by oil, salt pond and shrimp farming activities. Hydrobiologia 501:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wickramasinghe WAADL, Mubiana VK, Blust R (2017) The effects of heavy metal concentration on bio-accumulation, productivity and pigment content of two species of marine macroalgae. Sri Lankan J Aquat Sci 22:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yeh HC, Chen IM, Chen P, Wang WS (2009) Heavy metal concentrations of the soldier crab (Mictyris brevidactylus) along the inshore area of Changhua, Taiwan. Environ Monit Assess 153:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yilmaz AB, Yilmaz L (2007) Influences of sex and seasons on levels of heavy metals in tissues of green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus de Hann, 1844). Food Chem 101:1664–1669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhao S, Feng C, Quan W, Chen X, Niu J, Shen Z (2012) Role of living environments in the accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in fishes and crabs in the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Mar Pollut Bull 64:1163–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Harris
    • 1
  • P. Vinobaba
    • 1
  • R. K. A. Kularatne
    • 2
  • C. E. Kankanamge
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyEastern UniversityVantharumoolai, ChenkaladySri Lanka
  2. 2.Mount LaviniaSri Lanka
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of RuhunaHapugala, GalleSri Lanka

Personalised recommendations