Pneumatic jig: effect of airflow, time and pulse rates on solid particle separation

  • M. A. A. AzizEmail author
  • K. Md. Isa
  • N. J. Miles
  • R. A. Rashid
Original Paper


This paper aims to provide insights into the factors contributing to the efficiency of separation of solids particles in pneumatic jigging. A batch pneumatic jig was constructed at the University of Nottingham, UK, for solid waste recycling. Synthetic materials (density tracers), colour coded for density, were used as the bed materials in a series of experiments. The bed was analysed layer by layer using image analysis technique, utilizing colour difference among density tracers to calculate separation efficiency. In general, the pneumatic jigging movement depends on two important factors which are airflow rate and pulse rate. The former lifts the bed, and the latter creates intermittent air current. Airflow rate, pulse rate and time were studied to identify the significant parameters affecting separation efficiency in pneumatic jigging. Any changes in one of these parameters could influence separation efficiency. Process optimization was performed using Box–Behnken design to determine optimal conditions for obtaining high percentage of separation yield. Results from the software (Design-Expert® 7.1) suggested that optimal conditions could be attained at a pulse rate of 120 rotations per minute, time of 7 min and airflow rate of 30 cm/s, with the produced yield expected at 82.4%. Actual experiments generated a separation efficiency of greater than 80% by varying the tested parameters.


Pneumatic jig Solid particle separation Synthetic materials 



The author gratefully acknowledges the technical support of this work from The University of Nottingham, UK.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

This is a research-based work and does not have any conflict of interest.


  1. Ambrós WM, Cazacliu BG, Sampaio CH (2016) Wall effects on particle separation in air jigs. Powder Technol 301:369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aziz MAA (2014) Development of a continuous pneumatic jig for solid waste separation, Ph.D. University of NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  3. Boylu F, Talı E, Çetinel T, Çelik MS (2014) Effect of fluidizing characteristics on upgrading of lignitic coals in gravity based air jig. Int J Miner Process 129:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boylu F, Çinku K, Çetinel T, Karakaş F, Güven O, Karaağaçlioğlu IE, Çelik MS (2015) Effect of coal moisture on the treatment of a lignitic coal through a semi-pilot-scale pneumatic stratification jig. Int J Coal Prep Util 35:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chapman WR, Mott RA (1928) The cleaning of coal. The Whitefriars Press Ltd, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. Collins DN (1995) The separation of coarse particles (>1mm) using sorting methods based on optical, electrical, gravity and magnetic Processes. MIRO, West Yorkshire, UKGoogle Scholar
  7. Gupta CK (2003) Chemical metallurgy: principles and practice. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gupta CK, Suri AK (1994) Extractive metallurgy of niobium. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  9. Gupta A, Yan D (2006) Mineral processing design and operation: an introduction. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  10. Habib M (2010) Designing and assessing a novel vertical vibrated particle separator, Doctor of Science. University of NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  11. Hendriks CF, Xing W (2004) Suitable separation treatment of stony components in construction and demolition waste. In: International RILEM conference on the use of recycled materials in buildings and structures. Delft University of Technology, Faculty of CiTG, Espanha, Wuhan University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  12. Jain SK (1987) Ore processing, Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, Volume 15 of Indian edition series, book location in Nottingham University, UKGoogle Scholar
  13. Jarvis RP (1908) Investigation on jigging. Read Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Jong TPRD (1999) Density separation of non-ferous metals by means of jigging and fluidisation, Doctor of Philosophy. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  15. Koppen CWJV (1966) Fifth international mineral preparation congress, Pittsburgh, pp 85–95Google Scholar
  16. Mayer FW (1964) Fundamentals of a potential theory of the jigging process. In: Breach GA (ed) Proceeding of the 7th mineral processing congress, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Miles NJ, Shah C, Wotruba H, Weitkamper L, Fraunholcz N, Houwelingen JV, Jong TD (2003) An evaluation of the economics benefits of pneumatic dry cleaning process. University of Nottingham, NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  18. Mishra BK, Mehrotra SP (1998) Modelling of particle stratification in jigs by the discrete element method. Miner Eng 11:511–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mukherjee AK, Bhattacharjee D, Mishra BK (2006) Role of water velocity for efficient jigging of iron ore. Miner Eng 19:952–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Murray RG, Keith AJ (1987) A nontoxic substitute for hazardous heavy liquids—aqueous sodium polytungstate (3Na2WO4·9WO3·H2O) solution. N Z J Geol Geophys 30:317–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nwafor FO (2008) Pneumatic dry jigging: a new scheme for solid waste separation, Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering. University of NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  22. Rao DVS (2011) Mineral beneficiation: a concise basic course. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  23. Richard W, Richard S (2007) Advances in dry jigging improves coal quality.
  24. Rong RX, Lyman GJ (1992) The effect of jigging time and air cycle on bed stratification in a pilot scale Baum jig. Fuel 71:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Siame J (2008) Physical beneficiation of PGM tailings by gravity separation and elutriation techniques. Magister Technologiae, Engineering, Chemical, Tshwane University of Technology, Mpumalanga, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  26. Sripriya R, Murty CVGK (2005) Recovery of metal from slag/mixed metal generated in ferroalloy plants—a case study. Int J Miner Process 75:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Symonds DF (1971) Research into a new method of dry cleaning coal and ores, Doctor of Philosophy. University of NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  28. Taggart AF (1945) Handbook of mineral dressing. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Tsunekawa M, Naoi B, Ogawa S, Hori K, Hiroyoshi N, Ito M, Hirajima T (2005) Jig separation of plastics from scrapped copy machines. Int J Miner Process 76:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tsunekawa M, Kobayashi R, Hori K, Okada H, Abe N, Hiroyoshi N, Ito M (2012) Newly developed discharge device for jig separation of plastics to recover higher grade bottom layer product. Int J Miner Process 114–117:27–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vesilind PA, Rimer AE (1980) Unit operations in resource recovery engineering. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  32. Viduka SM, Feng YQ, Hapgood K, Schwarz MP (2013) Discrete particle simulation of solid separation in a jigging device. Int J Miner Process 123:108–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang Z, Hall P, Miles NJ et al (2015) The application of pneumatic jigging in the recovery of metallic fraction from shredded printed wiring boards. Waste Manage Res. Google Scholar
  34. Wills BA (1997) Mineal processing technology (an introduction to the practical aspects of ore treatment and mineral recovery). Butterworth-Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Ya-Li K, Jun Z, Hai-Yang Z, Jun G (2009) Mathematic simulation of +13 mm particles motion in jig. Proc Earth Planet Sci 1:819–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural ResourcesUniversiti Malaysia PahangGambang, KuantanMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)ArauMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre of Excellence for Biomass Utilisation, School of Bioprocess EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisArauMalaysia
  4. 4.Process and Environmental Research Division, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of NottinghamUniversity Park, NottinghamUK
  5. 5.Faculty of Languages and CommunicationUniversiti Sultan Zainal AbidinKuala NerusMalaysia

Personalised recommendations