Effect of thermal regeneration of diatomite adsorbent on its efficacy for removal of dye from water

  • H. AguedalEmail author
  • A. Iddou
  • A. Aziz
  • A. Shishkin
  • J. Ločs
  • T. Juhna
Original Paper


Reduction in adsorption capacities of adsorbents is limiting of its wider application for water treatment. In this study, we developed a new approach for recycling diatomite to be used adsorbent. The laser scattering particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis were used to evaluate the structural characteristics of treated samples. The adsorption efficacy of raw and heated diatomite at 300, 600 and 900 °C for textile dyestuff removal from wastewater was investigated. The characterization results show insignificant changes except some deconstructions were occurred after treatment at 900 °C. The maximum adsorption capacities were obtained at pH 2 and adsorbent dosage of 4 g L−1. The required time to reach the equilibrium was 30 min, and diatomite treated at 600 °C is acted as an excellent adsorbent. The kinetic studies were better described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The isotherms experimental data showed that the adsorption of dye onto raw diatomite, DH300 and DH600 follows the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller isotherm model, but its adsorption onto DH900 conforms well to Freundlich isotherm model. Recycling of diatomite using thermal treatment was useful. At 600 °C which is considered the best regeneration temperature, the adsorbed dye was completely despaired, and around 73% was restored after three regeneration cycles.


Diatomite Dye adsorption Thermal regeneration Wastewater purification 

List of symbols


Initial concentration of R-ETL dye (mg L−1)


Equilibrium concentration of R-ETL dye (mg L−1)


Adsorbed quantity of R-ETL dye (mg g−1)


Volume of solution (L)


Amount of adsorbents (g)


Removal efficiency of R-ETL dye (%)


Time (min)


Amount of R-ETL dye adsorbed at time t (mg g−1)


Pseudo-first-order kinetic model constant (min−1)


Pseudo-second-order kinetic model constant (g mg−1 h−1)


Intra-particle diffusion kinetic model constant (g mg−1 min−0.5)


Concentration at time t (mg L−1)


Intra-particle diffusion coefficient (m2 s−1)


Particle radius assuming spherical geometry (m)


Freundlich constant (mg g−1) (L g−1)1/n


Freundlich exponent


Langmuir isotherm constant (L mg−1)


Maximum adsorption capacity of R-ETL dye (mg g−1)


Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm constant (mol2 kJ−2)


Temperature (K)


Ideal gas constant (J K−1 mol−1)


BET adsorption isotherm constant (L/mg)


Saturation concentration of R-ETL dye (mg L−1)


Monolayer adsorption capacity (mg g−1)


Root-mean-squared error


Observed amounts of R-ETL dye adsorbed (mg g−1)


Predicted amounts of R-ETL dye adsorbed (mg g−1)


Number of experimental measurements


Coefficients of uniformity


Intercepts for 10% of the cumulative mass


Intercepts for 60% of the cumulative mass



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Algerian Ministry of Superior Education and Scientific Research (PNE Program No. 682, Code 16/70682). The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance provided by Mr Kristaps Rubenis, Ms Inga Dušenkova and Ms Valentīna Stepanova, from Rudolfs Cimdins Riga Biomaterials Innovations and Development Center, Institute of General Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia, respectively, for SEM micrographs, laser scattering particle size analyzes and BET analyzes. In the end the authors would like to dedicate this work for Prof. Ouali Mohand Said, from Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, Mostaganem (Algeria), may he rest in peace.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Aguedal
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Iddou
    • 1
  • A. Aziz
    • 1
  • A. Shishkin
    • 2
  • J. Ločs
    • 2
  • T. Juhna
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Valorisation des Matériaux, Département de Génie des Procédés, Faculté des Sciences et de la TechnologieUniversité Abdelhamid Ibn Badis – MostaganemMostaganemAlgeria
  2. 2.Rudolfs Cimdins Riga Biomaterials Innovations and Development Centre of RTU, Institute of General Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied ChemistryRiga Technical UniversityRigaLatvia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Water Research, Faculty of Civil EngineeringRiga Technical UniversityRigaLatvia

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