Modeling and optimizing of electrocoagulation process in treating phenolic wastewater by response surface methodology: precise evaluation of significant variables

  • T. Karami
  • S. ElyasiEmail author
  • T. Amani
Original Paper


The present work reports treatment of synthetic phenolic wastewater by electrocoagulation process. Aluminum flat sheets were utilized as electrodes. Central composite design combined with response surface methodology has been applied for optimizing the process parameters. The interaction effects of phenol concentration, electrode distance, pH, voltage, and electrolysis time (ET) were analyzed and correlated to assess the efficiency of phenol removal as process response. The ANOVA outcomes declared that the initial phenol concentration (relevant coefficient = −3.44) and ET (relevant coefficient = 1.42), respectively, are the most and the least effective parameters on the efficiency of phenol removal. Furthermore, optimal factors were obtained as follows: influent phenol concentration = 14.23 mg/L, electrode distance = 2.20 cm, pH = 6.37, voltage = 16.46 V, and electrolysis time = 44.66 min, in which the percentage of phenol removal at this condition was about 90.6%.


Aluminum electrode Electrocoagulation process Modeling Optimization Phenolic wastewater treatment Response surface methodology (RSM) 


Adj. R2

Adjusted R2


Analysis of variance


Adequate precision


Central composite design


Chemical oxygen demand


Coefficients of variation




Electrode distance


Electrolysis time


Determination coefficient


Response surface methodology


Standard deviation



The authors would like to thank the water treatment plant located in Nanaleh County of Sanandaj, Iran, and also Miss Haleh Nourizadeh and Mr. Kamel Rouzrokh for their kind cooperation. Furthermore, the authors are grateful to State-Ease, Minneapolis, MN, USA, for the provision of the Design-Expert package.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of KurdistanSanandajIran

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