Progress in Artificial Intelligence

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 1–14 | Cite as

A snapshot on nonstandard supervised learning problems: taxonomy, relationships, problem transformations and algorithm adaptations

  • David CharteEmail author
  • Francisco Charte
  • Salvador García
  • Francisco Herrera


Machine learning is a field which studies how machines can alter and adapt their behavior, improving their actions according to the information they are given. This field is subdivided into multiple areas, among which the best known are supervised learning (e.g., classification and regression) and unsupervised learning (e.g., clustering and association rules). Within supervised learning, most studies and research are focused on well-known standard tasks, such as binary classification, multi-class classification and regression with one dependent variable. However, there are many other less known problems. These are what we generically call nonstandard supervised learning problems. The literature about them is much more sparse, and each study is directed to a specific task. Therefore, the definitions, relations and applications of this kind of learners are hard to find. The goal of this paper is to provide the reader with a broad view on the distinct variations of nonstandard supervised problems. A comprehensive taxonomy summarizing their traits is proposed. A review of the common approaches followed to accomplish them, and their main applications are provided as well.


Machine learning Supervised learning Nonstandard learning 

Mathematics Subject Classification

68T05 68T10 



D. Charte is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities under the FPU National Program (Ref. FPU17/04069). This work has been partially supported by projects TIN2017-89517-P (FEDER Founds) of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and TIN2015-68454-R of the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Artificial IntelligenceUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of JaénJaénSpain

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