Advertisement

Neotropical Entomology

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 668–677 | Cite as

Morphology, Biology and Predation Capacity of Amphiareus constrictus (Stål) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

  • C R Ballal
  • R VarshneyEmail author
  • S Joshi
Biological Control
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

A minute pirate bug, Amphiareus constrictus (Stål) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), the biology of which has been less studied, was successfully reared in the laboratory for more than 20 generations. Studies were conducted to understand its biology, life table parameters, and predatory potential. Besides the adult, the egg and all five nymphal instars are described with live images, which can serve as additional characters for identification. The biological parameters were studied at different temperatures. Rearing temperatures of 25 and 30°C were found to be suitable for hatching and nymphal survival to adult stage (88.5 and 75%, respectively). Life table parameters like net reproductive rate (R0), precise intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ) and hypothetical F2 females were higher at 25°C. A nymph could consume a total of 32.8 ± 1.8 Corcyra cephalonica Stainton eggs. Male and female adult consumed a total of 179.0 ± 15.6 and 388.5 ± 58.6 C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. The data generated through studies on biology, fertility, and predatory potential led to the standardization of a simple production protocol for A. constrictus utilizing the eggs of the rice moth C. cephalonica. Predatory potential studies on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) indicated that a nymph could consume 154.8 eggs during nymphal duration. Male and female adults could consume 1280.5 and 1435 eggs, respectively. The mass-reared A. constrictus can be field evaluated against the tomato pinworm TT absoluta and the brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål.

Keywords

Anthocoridae Amphiareus constrictus Biology Diagnostic characters Predatory potential Rearing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Dr. V. V. Ramamurthy, National Co-ordinator, Network Project on Insect Bio-systematics, Division of Entomology, IARI, New Delhi, India, for the EM facilities provided and to Dr. K. Yamada, Tokushima Prefectural Museum, Tokushima, Japan, for taxonomic identification of Amphiareus constrictus. The authors are also thankful to Mr. Jogesha for technical assistance and Mr. Raja for continuous maintenance of the Amphiareus constrictus culture.

Author Contribution

CRB and SJ conceived the study. CRB, RV, and SJ performed experiments and analyzed the data. CRB and RV wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

References

  1. Arnold CY (1959) The determination and significance of the base temperature in a linear heat unit system. Proc Am Soc Horti Sci 74:430–445Google Scholar
  2. Ballal CR, Singh SP, Poorani J (2003) Biology and rearing requirements of an anthocorid predator, Blaptostethus pallescens Poppius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). J Biol Control 17:29–33Google Scholar
  3. Ballal CR, Gupta T, Joshi S (2012) Effect of different laboratory hosts on the fertility table parameters and continuous rearing of an anthocorid predator Orius tantillus (Motsch.). Pest Manage Hort Ecosyst 18:24–28Google Scholar
  4. Birch LC (1948) The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. J Anim Ecol 17:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brenner GJ, Lattin JD (2001) Notes on three species of Anthocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from Hawaii, including the first record of Buchananiella continua (White). Proc Entomol Soc Wash 103:386–388Google Scholar
  6. Brito JP, Vacari AM, Thuler RT, De Bortoli SA (2009) Aspectos biológicos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) predando ovos de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758) e Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). Arq Instit Biol 76(4):627–633Google Scholar
  7. Carpintero DL (2002) Minute pirate bugs (Anthocoridae and Lyctocoridae). In: Panizzi AR, Grazia J (eds) True bugs (Heteroptera) of the neotropics. Springer, pp 217–236Google Scholar
  8. Cassis G, Gross GF (1995) Hemiptera: Heteroptera (Coleorrhyncha to Cimicomorpha). In: WWK H, Maynard GV (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia, vol 27. CSIRO, Melbourne, p 3A 506 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Cobben RH (1968) Part 1. Eggs, architecture of the shell, gross embryology and eclosion. In: Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, 475 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Distant WL (1906) Order Rhynchota. Suborder Heteroptera. Family Anthocoridae. In: Bingham CT (ed) The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, vol 3. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  11. Distant WL (1910) Order Rhynchota. Suborder Heteroptera. Family Anthocoridae. In: Bingham CT (ed) The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, vol 5. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 295–309Google Scholar
  12. Gontijo LM, Celestino D, Queiroz OS, Guedes RNC, Picanco MC (2015) Impacts of azadirachtin and chlorantraniliprole on developmental stages of pirate bug predators (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Fla Entomol 98:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Henry TJ (1988) Family Anthocoridae Fieber, 1837. The minute flower bugs. In: Henry TJ, Froeschner RC (eds) Catalog of the Heteroptera, or true bugs, of Canada and the continental United States. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp 12–28 958 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Henry TJ, Wheeler AG Jr, Steiner WE Jr (2008) First North American records of Amphiareus obscuriceps (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), with a discussion of dead-leaf microhabitats. Proc Entomol Soc Wash 110:402–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lattin JD, Lewis T (2001) Amphiareus constrictus (Stål) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from California: clarification of previous record and citation. Proc Entomol Soc Wash 103:334–336Google Scholar
  16. Manjunath TM, Rai PS, Gowda G (1978) Parasites and predators of Nilaparvata lugens in India. PANS 24:265–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morris RF, Fulton WC (1970) Models for the development and survival of Hyphantriacunea in relation to temperature and humidity. Mem Entomol Soc Canada 70:1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Muraleedharan N, Ananthakrishnan TN (1974) The genus Buchananiella Reuter from India with description of a new species (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Orient Insects 8:33–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Muraleedharan N, Ananthakrishnan TN (1978) On the tribes Cardiastethini and Almeidini from South India (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Bull Zool Surv India 1:55–70Google Scholar
  20. Nieto JAA, Rincon FC, Caicedo DR (2016) Life table of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) feeding on Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs. Rev Fac Agron 69(1):7773–7782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pereira RR, Picanco MC, Santana PA Jr, Moreira SS, Guedes RNC, Correa AS (2014) Insecticide toxicity and walking response of three pirate bug predators on the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta. Agric For Entomol 16:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Péricart J (1996) Family Anthocoridae Fieber, 1836- flower bugs, minute pirate bugs. In: Aukema B, Rieger C (eds) Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region.Cimicomorpha I, vol 2. Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam, pp 108–140Google Scholar
  23. Queiroz OS, Ramos RS, Gontijo LM, Picanço MC (2015) Functional response of three species of predatory pirate bugs attacking eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Environ Entomol 44:246–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Russo A, Cocuzza GE, Vasta MC (2004) Life tables of Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) feeding on Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae). J Stored Prod Res 40:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salehi Z, Yarahmadi F, Rasekh A, Sohani NZ (2016) Functional responses of Orius albidipennis Reuter (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) to Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) on two tomato cultivars with different leaf morphological characteristics. Entomol Gen 36(2):127–136.  https://doi.org/10.1127/entomologia/2016/0339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sands WA (1957) The immature stages of some British Anthocoridae (Hemiptera). Trans R Entomol Soc London 109:295–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. SAS Institute Inc. (2011). Base SAS® 9.3 Procedures Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
  28. Schuldiner-Harpaz T, Coll M (2012) Identification of Orius (Hetroptera: Anthocoridae) females based on egg operculum structure. J Econ Entomol 105:1520–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh SP, Jalali SK, Bhumannavar BS, Bakthavatsalam N, Pushpalatha NA (1994a) Production and use of Chrysopid predators. Project Directorate of Biological Control, Bangalore, Tech Bull No 10, 14ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Singh SP, Jalali SK, Bhumannavar BS, Bakthavatsalam N, Pushpalatha NA (1994b) Production and use of trichogrammatid egg parasitoids. Project Directorate of Biological Control, Bangalore, Tech Bull No. 11, 16 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Southwood TRE (1956) The structure of eggs of the terrestrial heteroptera and its relationship to the classification of the group. Trans R Entomol Soc London 108:163–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. SPSS Inc. Released 2009. PASW statistics for windows, version 18.0. SPSS Inc., ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  33. Stål C (1860) Bidrag till Rio Janeiro-traktens Hemiptera-fauna, 1. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens Handlinger 2:1–84 (In Swedish)Google Scholar
  34. Steiner WE Jr (1984) A review of the biology of phalacrid beetles (Coleoptera). In: Wheeler Q, Black M (eds) Fungus insect relationships: perspectives in ecology and evolution. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 424–445Google Scholar
  35. Tommasini MG, Van Lenteren JC, Burgio G (2004) Biological traits and predation capacity of four Orius species on two prey species. Bull Insectol 57:79–93Google Scholar
  36. Yamada K (2008) Taxonomy of the genus Amphiareus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in Southeast Asia. Eur J Entomol 105:909–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yamada K, Hirowatari T (2003) Japanese species of the genus Amphiareus Distant (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), with descriptions of two new species. Entomol Sci 6:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yamada K, Hirowatari T (2011) Distributional records of seven flower bugs (Heteroptera: Lyctocoridae, Anthocoridae) from Japan. Rostria 53:63–66Google Scholar
  39. Yano E, Watanabe K, Yara K (2002) Life history parameters of Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Het., Anthocoridae) reared on Ephestia kuehniella eggs and the minimum amount of the diet for rearing individuals. J Appl Ent 126:389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zimmerman EG (1984) Insects of Hawaii. Heteroptera, vol 3. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 255 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect ResourcesBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations