Neotropical Entomology

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 246–259 | Cite as

Olive Leaf Extracts Toxicity to the Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria: Histopathological Effects on the Alimentary Canal and Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-Transferases Activity

  • K AbdellaouiEmail author
  • O Boussadia
  • M Miladi
  • I Boughattas
  • G Omri
  • M Mhafdhi
  • M Hazzoug
  • F Acheuk
  • M Brahem
Systematics, Morphology and Physiology


The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Linnaeus), is the most widespread locust species. Frequent applications of insecticides have inevitably resulted in environmental pollution and development of resistance in some natural populations of the locust. To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, experiments were conducted to assess the effect of olive leaf extracts on L. migratoria fifth instar larvae. The methanolic extracts were prepared from the leaves sampled during four phenological growth stages of olive tree which are as follows: Cluster formation (Cf), Swelling inflorescence buds (Sib), Full flowering (Ff), and Endocarp hardening (Eh). The most relevant result was noted with the extract prepared from the leaves collected at the Sib-stage. Results showed that treatment of newly emerged larvae resulted in a significant mortality with a dose-response relationship. The olive leaf extracts toxicity was also demonstrated by histopathological changes in the alimentary canal resulting in a considerable disorganization and serious damage of the midgut, ceca, and proventriculus structure. Epithelial cells alterations, less dense and degraded striated border, disintegrated regeneration crypts, vacuolarized cells, extrusion of cytoplasmic contents, and rupture of muscular layer were evident in the midgut and ceca of treated larvae. Data of biochemical analyzes showed that olive leaf extracts induced a significant decrease of the hemolymph metabolites (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids). In a second series of experiments, we showed that the olive leaf extracts reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase and induced the glutathione S-transferases with a dose-response relationship.


Apolysis enzymes histology metabolites midgut olive tree phenological growth stages 



The authors acknowledge Dr. Nizar Chaira, Aridlands and Oases Cropping Laboratory, Institute of the Arid Areas of Medenine, Tunisia, for the help in metabolites quantification. The authors would like to express their gratitude to Mariem Hafi of the Laboratory of Olive Tree Ecophysiology and Mineral Analysis of Olive Tree Institute (IO) for providing the olive tree leaves samples and technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, Higher Agronomic Institute of Chott MariemSousse UnivSousseTunisia
  2. 2.Unit of SousseOlive Tree InstituteSousseTunisia
  3. 3.General Directorate of Plant Health and Agricultural Inputs ControlMinistry of AgricultureTunisTunisia
  4. 4.Lab of Valorization and Conservation of Biological Resources “Valcore,” Dept of Biology, Faculty of SciencesUniv of BoumerdesBoumerdesAlgeria

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