Elevated temperature-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction based on solidification of a floating organic drop for the determination of UV filters in water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector
- 15 Downloads
A rapid and reliable procedure named as elevated temperature-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop was developed for determination of UV filters in environmental water samples followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection analysis. In the present work, a mixture of extraction solvent (1-undecanol) and emulsifier (Tween 80) was injected rapidly into the sample solution heated at an elevated temperature. The preheated sample dispersed the extraction solvent into sample solution immediately on injection of the mixture. Various parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including type and volume of extraction solvent, type and concentration of surfactant, temperature of aqueous solution, extraction time and solution pH were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, low limits of detection (0.8–1.4 ng mL−1) and limits of quantification (2.7–4.0 ng mL−1) were obtained. The precision of this method was investigated at 10 ng mL−1, and the relative standard deviations ranged between 1.2 and 5.1% for intra-day and inter-days determinations. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the UV filters in genuine water samples with relative recoveries ranged from 88.8 to 98.2%.
KeywordsElevated temperature-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification Solidification of floating organic droplets UV filters Water samples
The authors acknowledge the financial support of Yunnan key laboratory of food-safety testing technology, the Applied Basic Research Programs of Yunnan Science and Technology Department (Grant No. 2015FD087) and the Projects of Yunnan Education Department (2017ZDX048).
- 13.J.W. Kim, T. Isobe, R. Tanoue, K.H. Chang, S. Tanabe, Comprehensive determination of pharmaceuticals personal care products, benzotriazole UV stabilizers and organophosphorus flame retardants in environmental water samples using SPE coupled with UHPLC-MS/MS. Curr. Anal. Chem. 11, 138–149 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.H.O. Oliveira, M.A. Segundo, J.L.F.C. Lima, M. Miróand, V. Cerdà, On-line renewable solid-phase extraction hyphenated to liquid chromatography for the determination of UV filters using bead injection and multisyringe-lab-on-valve approach. J. Chromatogr. A 1217, 3575–3582 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.M. Ma, H. Wang, M. Zhang, Q. Zhen, X. Du, Facile fabrication of polyaniline coated titania nanotube arrays as fiber coatings for solid phase microextraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for sensitive determination of UV filters in environmental water samples. Anal. Methods 9, 211–221 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.H. Wang, L. Hu, X. Liu, S. Yin, R. Lu, S. Zhang, W. Zhou, H. Gao, Deep eutectic solvent-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of ultraviolet filters in water samples. J. Chromatogr. A 1516, 1–8 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.S. Clavijo, J. Avivar, R. Suárez, V. Cerdà, In-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and silylation prior gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultraviolet filters determination in environmental water samples. J. Chromatogr. A 1443, 26–34 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.M.A. Farajzadeh, M.R.A. Mogaddam, H. Ghorbanpour, Development of a new microextraction method based on elevated temperature dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of triazole pesticides residues in honey by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection. J. Chromatogr. A 1347, 8–16 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.M.A. Farajzadeh, M.R.A. Mogaddam, S.R. Aghdam, N. Nouri, M. Bamorrowat, Application of elevated temperature-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides residues in aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Food Chem. 212, 198–204 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.J. Cheng, G. Matsadiq, L. Liu, Y.-W. Zhou, G. Chen, Development of a novel ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction method and its application to the analysis of eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at trace levels in water. J. Chromatogr. A 1218, 2476–2482 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.X. You, S. Wang, F. Liu, K. Shi, Ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic droplet used for the simultaneous determination of six fungicide residues in juices and red wine. J. Chromatogr. A 1300, 64–69 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.S.C. Cunha, A. Pena, J.O. Fernandes, Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by microwave-assisted silylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for simultaneous trace quantification of bisphenol A and 13 ultraviolet filters in wastewaters. J. Chromatogr. A 1414, 10–21 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.L. Li, R. Guo, Y. Li, M. Guo, X. Wang, X. Du, In situ growth and phenyl functionalization of titania nanoparticles coating for solid-phase microextraction of ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection. Anal. Chim. Acta 867, 38–46 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar