Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 28, Issue 12, pp 1001–1013 | Cite as

Preformed particle gels of sulfonated polyacrylamide: preparation, characterization, and application as permeability modifier

  • Aghdas Heidari
  • Ebrahim Vasheghani-FarahaniEmail author
  • Mohsen Vafaie-SeftiEmail author
Original Research


In this study, a preformed particle gel (PPG) was synthesized from sulfonated polyacrylamide and chromium metal cross-linker with specific concentration. The main characteristics of PPG, such as gelation time, gel fraction, swelling properties and salt sensitivity factor were investigated. The gel fraction of 94.1% practically indicated an appropriate conversion of gelant to the gel. The equilibrium swelling ratios of particle gels in distilled water and formation water at 80 °C were 470.49 and 12.61, respectively. Additionally, the rheological properties of gel were studied by a dynamic rheometer. The ultimate storage modulus of gel was measured 35.4 kPa. The linear viscoelastic behavior was observed at strain between 1 and 82.6% and gel structure was stable up to strain of 1120% with small reduction of storage modulus. The kinetics of gelation were also studied at different temperatures and tested against Avrami equation to determine the kinetic parameters. The Avrami exponents for two kinetic steps were about 2.29 and 0.80, respectively, indicating the rapid formation of the gel network at first step due to nucleation and two-dimensional growths of gel nuclei. Furthermore, a core flooding experiment was conducted to study PPG performance in porous media. The residual resistance factor of water and oil was 41.58 and 12.91, respectively. A value of 3.22 for the ratio of these two factors indicated the ability of the synthesized PPG to decrease water-effective permeability compared to oil-effective permeability in porous media.


Preformed particle gels Swelling Gelation kinetics Rheology Conformance control 

List of symbols


Inverse of the initial swelling rate (s/g)


Inverse of the maximum water uptake (1/g)


Disproportionate permeability reduction index


Pore throat diameter (µm)


Activation energy (cal/mol)


Equilibrium swelling ratio in distilled water (g/g)


Equilibrium swelling ratio in formation water (g/g)


Complex modulus (Pa)


Storage module (Pa)


Loss module (Pa)


Overall gelation rate constant (1/sn)


Absolute permeability (D)


Kinetic rate constant of swelling (1/g s)


Oil-effective permeability (D)


Water-effective permeability (D)


Water uptake at time t (g)


Avrami exponent


Universal gas constant (cal/mol K)


Residual resistance factors


Salt sensitivity factor


Absolute temperature (K)


Time (s)


Mass of the dry gel (g)


Mass of the swollen gel (g)




Viscosity (Pa s)


Complex viscosity (Pa s)


Frequency (rad/s)




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Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Chemical EngineeringTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

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