Advertisement

Ultrafine calcium carbonate-filled natural rubber latex film: mechanical and post-processing properties

  • Makara Lay
  • Noramirah Hamran
  • Azura A. RashidEmail author
Original Research
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

This study aims to improve the dispersion of treated calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in natural rubber latex (NRL) films. Ball mill and ultrasonic methods were used to break down the particle size of CaCO3, and the combined effect of ball mill/ultrasonic and ultrasonic/ball mill methods with their optimum processing times was applied to re-agglomerate and further break down the particle size of CaCO3. The particle size and dispersibility of treated CaCO3 were characterized by particle-size analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Zeta-potential measurement. The particle-size analysis and TEM results revealed that the particle size of CaCO3 reduced down to 1.4 µm with less agglomeration using ultrasonic for 120 min and ball mill for 72 h. Zeta--potential measurement also indicated that the ultrafine-treated CaCO3 with a broad particle-size distribution was compatible with NRL particles. The treated CaCO3 loadings from 5 to 20 phr were filled in the NRL compounds. NRL/CaCO3compounds showed decrease in viscosity and cross-link density, but increase in swelling index. It was found that tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, elongation-at-break, swelling index, and cross-link density of the films were improved with addition of 10 phr of CaCO3. At 20 phr of filler loading, the increment rate of tensile strength of NRL/CaCO3 films was 44% after leaching, and their retention percentage was 62% after heat aging. Therefore, ultrafine CaCO3-incorporated NRL can withstand under accelerated heat-aging condition.

Keywords

Natural rubber latex Calcium carbonate Tensile strength Cross-link density Swelling index 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank to Universiti Sains Malaysia and Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for Knowledge Transfer Program [Grant no. 203/PBahan/6750050].

References

  1. 1.
    Yu P, He H, Jia Y, Tian S, Chen J, Jia D (2016) A comprehensive study on lignin as a green alternative of silica in natural rubber composites. Polym Test 54:176–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    George N, Venugopal B, John H, Mathiazhagan A (2019) Nanosilica decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CS hybrids) in natural rubber latex. Polymer 161:170–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rahman MA, Tong GB, Kamaruddin NH, Wahab FA, Hamizi NA, Chowdhyry ZZ, Sagadwvan S, Chanlek N, Johan MR (2019) Effect of graphene infusion on morphology and performance of natural rubber latex/graphene composites. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 30:12888–12894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wijessinghe HGI, Gamage WGT, Ariyananda P, Jayasinghe HASL, Weerawansha ANR (2016) Optimization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) loading in natural rubber latex based disposable gloves. Int J Sci Res Publ 6:266–269Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh M, Sharib SFM, Mok KL, Yatim AHM (2019) Colloidal properties of precipitated calcium carbonate dispersion and its effect on prevulcanised natural rubber latex rheology and film tensile properties. J Rubber Res 22:43–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Spiegel S (2018) Recent advances in applied polymer science. J Appl Polym Sci 135:45701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Deng CM, Chen M, Ao NJ, Yan D, Zheng ZQ (2006) CaCO3/natural rubber latex nanometer composite and its properties. J Appl Polym Sci 101:3442–3447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sampath MW, Egodage S, Edirisinghe D (2019) Effect of an organotitanate coupling agent on properties of calcium carbonate filled low-density polyethylene and natural rubber composites. J Natl Sci Found Sri Lanka 47:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nuraya ASS, Rashid AA, Hakim MF, Mazlan I, Adnan M, Nooraziah AA (2012) Latex films by banana stem powder and comparison with silica and calcium carbonate. J Rubber Res 15:124–140Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cai HH, Li SD, Tian GR, Wang HB, Wang JH (2002) Reinforcement of natural rubber latex film by ultrafine calcium carbonate. J Appl Polym Sci 87:982–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fang Q, Song B, Tee TT, Sin LT, Hu D, Bee ST (2014) Investigation of dynamic characteristics of nano-size calcium carbonate added in natural rubber vulcanizate. Compos Part B Eng 60:561–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sadeghi Ghari H, Jalali-Arani A (2016) Nanocomposites based on natural rubber, organoclay and nano-calcium carbonate: study on the structure, cure behavior, static and dynamic-mechanical properties. Appl Clay Sci 119:348–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen X, Zhu Y, Zhou B, Guo Y, Goa W, Ma Y, Guan S, Wang L, Wang Z (2010) Hydrophilic CaCO3 nanoparticles designed for poly(ethylene terephthalate). Powder Technol 204:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang Z, Tang Y, Zhang J (2013) Surface modification of CaCO3 nanoparticle with silane coupling agent for improvement of interfacial compatibility with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex. Chalcogenide Lett 10:131–141Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thomas S, Kalarikkal N, Stephan AM, Raneesh B, Haghi AK (2014) Advanced nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, and applications, 1st edn. CRC Press, New JerseyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arumugam D, Kalaignan GP (2010) Synthesis and electrochemical characterizations of nano-La2O3-coated nanostructure LiMn2O4 cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Mater Res Bull 45:1825–1831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang C, Lu G, Sun Z, Yu J (2012) Catalytic graphitization of carbon composites by lanthanum oxide. J Rare Earths 30:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jiang S, Li X, Zuo D, Wang H, Liu Z, Xu R (2012) A comparative study on nano La2O3 suspension treated by ultrasonic and ball milling. J Rare Earths 30:1116–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hamran N, Rashid AA (2017) Effect of combination ultrasonic and ball milling techniques of commercial fillers dispersion on mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) latex films. AIP Conf Proc.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4993353 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suki FMM, Rashid AA, Azahari B (2016) Effect of ball milled and ultrasonic sago starch dispersion on sago starch filled natural rubber latex (SSNRL) films. Proc Chem 19:782–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thuraisingam J, Mishra P, Gupta A, Soubam T, Piah BM (2019) Novel natural rubber latex/lignin-based bio-adhesive: synthesis and its application on medium density fiber-board. Iran Polym J 28:283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Johns A, Aan MPS, Johns J, Bhagyashekar MS, Nakason C, Kalkornsurapranee E (2015) Optimization study of ammonia and glutaraldehyde contents on vulcanization of natural rubber latex. Iran Polym J 24:901–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Surya I, Sukeksi L, Hayeemasae N, Surya I, Ismai H, Hayeemasae N (2018) Cure characteristics, crosslink density and degree of filler dispersion of kaolin-filled natural rubber compounds in the presence of alkanolamide. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 343:012009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arayapranee W, Rempel GL (2013) Effects of polarity on the filler–rubber interaction and properties of silica filled grafted natural rubber composites. J Polym 2013:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Misman MA, Rashid AA, Hamid ZAA (2015) The physical and degradation properties of starch-graft-acrylonitrile/carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber latex films. Carbohydr Polym 128:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li D, Müller MB, Gilje S, Kaner RB, Wallace GG (2008) Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets. Nat Nanotechnol 3:101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nakajima N (1999) Science and practice of rubber mixing. Smithers Rapra Publishing, AkronGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sinha D, Singh R, Bhowmick A (2000) Studies on processing behaviour and dynamic mechanical properties of rubber vulcanizates through rubber process analyser. In: Mathur G, Kandpal L, Sen A (eds) Proceedings of recent advances in polymers and composites, 1st edn. Allied Publishers Limited, New Delhi, pp 657–671Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Attharangsan S, Ismail H, Bakar MA, Ismail J (2012) Carbon black (CB)/rice husk powder (RHP) hybrid filler-filled natural rubber composites: effect of CB/RHP ratio on property of the composites. Polym Plast Technol Eng 51:655–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hamid ZAA, Rashid AA (2011) Effect of different types of filler and filler loadings on the properties of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex films. J Appl Polym Sci 119:2815–2823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kato A, Tohsan A, Kohjiya S, Phakkeeree T, Phinyocheep P, Ikeda Y (2017) Manufacturing and structure of rubber nanocomposites. In: Thomas S, Maria HJ (eds) Progress in rubber nanocomposites. Woodhead Publishing, London, pp 415–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang Y, Zhang H, Wu Y, Yang J, Zhang L (2005) Structure and properties of strain-induced crystallization rubber–clay nanocomposites by co-coagulating the rubber latex and clay aqueous suspension. J Appl Polym Sci 96:813–823Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Khan I, Bhat A (2014) Micro and nano calcium carbonate filled natural rubber composites and nanocomposites. In: Thomas S, Maria HJ, Joy J, Chan CH, Pothen LA (eds) Natural rubber materials composites and nanocomposites, vol 2. Royal Society of Chemistry, London, pp 467–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nor NA, Othman N (2016) Effect of filler loading on curing characteristic and tensile properties of palygorskite natural rubber nanocomposites. Proc Chem 19:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harahap H, Surya E, Surya I, Ismail H, Azahari B (2014) Effect of leaching treatment on mechanical properties of natural rubber latex (NRL) products filled modified kaolin. Appl Mech Mater 548–549:90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials and Mineral Resources EngineeringEngineering Campus, Universiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

Personalised recommendations