Advertisement

Actinic Prurigo and Hydroa Vacciniforme

  • Brandon L. AdlerEmail author
  • Vincent A. DeLeo
Photodermatology (B Adler and V DeLeo, Section Editor)
  • 2 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Photodermatology

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To summarize current knowledge pertaining to two photodermatoses, actinic prurigo (AP) and hydroa vacciniforme (HV), both of which routinely have onset in childhood.

Recent Findings

AP is an immune-mediated photodermatosis associated with human leukocyte antigen DR4 that commonly features cheilitis and conjunctivitis. It mostly affects American Indian/Latin American Mestizos and rarely white and Asian patients, who manifest different disease phenotypes. The diagnosis is clinical, but follicular cheilitis is a characteristic mucosal biopsy finding, and phototesting may be helpful. Hallmarks of treatment are photoprotection and thalidomide.

HV is a photodermatosis related to Epstein-Barr virus infection that causes varioliform scarring. Classic HV is benign and self-limited and must be distinguished from hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder (HVLLPD), a systemic disease most common in Asia and Latin America with risk of progression to lymphoma. Limited treatments are available, but accumulating data suggest chemotherapy is associated with worse outcomes in HVLLPD.

Summary

As understanding of these photodermatoses progresses, important knowledge gaps persist. AP’s pathogenesis remains incompletely elucidated, and therapeutic investigation has stagnated. Despite enhanced description of HV and HVLLPD, both lack standardized effective therapy.

Keywords

Actinic prurigo Thalidomide Hydroa vacciniforme Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder EBV Photosensitivity 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Brandon L. Adler and Vincent A. DeLeo declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Valbuena MC, Muvdi S, Lim HW. Actinic prurigo. Dermatol Clin. 2014;32(3):335–44, viii.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2014.03.010.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rodriguez-Carreon AA, Rodriguez-Lobato E, Rodriguez-Gutierrez G, Cuevas-Gonzalez JC, Mancheno-Valencia A, Solis-Arias MP, et al. Actinic Prurigo. Skinmed. 2015;13(4):287–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hojyo-Tomoka T, Granados J, Vargas-Alarcon G, Yamamoto-Furusho JK, Vega-Memije E, Cortes-Franco R, et al. Further evidence of the role of HLA-DR4 in the genetic susceptibility to actinic prurigo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;36(6 Pt 1):935–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Calnan CD, Meara RH. Actinic prurigo (Hutchinson’s summer prurigo). Clin Exp Dermatol. 1977;2(4):365–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hojyo-Tomoka MT, Vega-Memije ME, Cortes-Franco R, Dominguez-Soto L. Diagnosis and treatment of actinic prurigo. Dermatol Ther. 2003;16(1):40–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gomez A, Umana A, Trespalacios AA. Immune responses to isolated human skin antigens in actinic prurigo. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12(3):Br106–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    •• Vega Memije ME, Cuevas Gonzalez JC, Hojyo-Tomoka MT, Rodriguez Lobato E. Actinic prurigo as a hypersensitivity reaction type 4. Int J Dermatol. 2017;56(6):e135–e6.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13550 Synthesizes recent evidence showing that AP represents a delayed hypersensitivity reaction involving Th1 and Th2 pathways. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cuevas-Gonzalez JC, Lievanos-Estrada Z, Vega-Memije ME, Hojyo-Tomoka MT, Dominguez-Soto L. Correlation of serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations in patients with actinic prurigo. An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91(1):23–6.  https://doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20163941.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Martinez-Luna E, Bologna-Molina R, Mosqueda-Taylor A, Cuevas-Gonzalez JC, Rodriguez-Lobato E, Martinez-Velasco MA, et al. Inmunohistochemical detection of mastocytes in tissue from patients with actinic prurigo. J Clin Exp Dent. 2015;7(5):e656–9.  https://doi.org/10.4317/jced.52823.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gonzalez JC, Vazquez FJ, Rodriguez Lobato E, Farfan Morales JE, Vega Memije ME. Determination of apoptosis in actinic prurigo by TUNEL technique. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2015;31(2):115–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/phpp.12153.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cuevas-Gonzalez JC, Vega-Memije ME, Garcia-Vazquez FJ, Rodriguez-Lobato E, Farfan-Morales JE. Apoptosis and apoptotic pathway in actinic prurigo by immunohistochemistry. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2016;21(1):e53–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    •• Cuevas-Gonzalez JC, Vega-Memije ME, Borges-Yanez SA, Rodriguez-Lobato E. Risk factors associated with actinic prurigo: a case control study. An Bras Dermatol. 2017;92(6):774–8.  https://doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20175105 Reports a significant association between living with farm animals and developing AP, representing a possible antigenic trigger of disease. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Menage Hd VRW, Baker CS, Page G, Proby CM, Breathnach SM, et al. HLA-DR4 may determine expression of actinic prurigo in British patients. J Invest Dermatol. 1996;106(2):362–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zuloaga-Salcedo S, Castillo-Vazquez M, Vega-Memije E, Arellano-Campos O, Rodriguez-Perez JM, Perez-Hernandez N, et al. Class I and class II major histocompatibility complex genes in Mexican patients with actinic prurigo. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156(5):1074–5.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.07801.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bernal JE, Duran de Rueda MM, de Brigard D. Human lymphocyte antigen in actinic prurigo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18(2 Pt 1):310–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bernal JE, Duran de Rueda MM, Ordonez CP, Duran C, de Brigard D. Actinic prurigo among the Chimila Indians in Colombia: HLA studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22(6 Pt 1):1049–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sheridan DP, Lane PR, Irvine J, Martel MJ, Hogan DJ. HLA typing in actinic prurigo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22(6 Pt 1):1019–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wiseman MC, Orr PH, Macdonald SM, Schroeder ML, Toole JW. Actinic prurigo: clinical features and HLA associations in a Canadian Inuit population. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44(6):952–6.  https://doi.org/10.1067/mjd.2001.112579.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    •• Chen Q, Shen M, Heng YK, TSC T, Tey HL, Ren EC, et al. Actinic prurigo in Singaporean Chinese: a positive association with HLA-DRB1*03:01. Photochem Photobiol. 2016;92(2):355–9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12569 Identifies a novel allele, HLA-DRB1*0301, in Singaporean Chinese patients with AP. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Crouch R, Foley P, Baker C. Actinic prurigo: a retrospective analysis of 21 cases referred to an Australian photobiology clinic. Australas J Dermatol. 2002;43(2):128–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hojyo-Tomoka T, Vega-Memije E, Granados J, Flores O, Cortes-Franco R, Teixeira F, et al. Actinic prurigo: an update. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34(6):380–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lane PR, Hogan DJ, Martel MJ, Reeder B, Irvine J. Actinic prurigo: clinical features and prognosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26(5 Pt 1):683–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cuevas-González JC, Rodríguez-Lobato E, Mancheno-Valencia A, Hojyo-Tomoka MT, Domínguez-Soto L, Vega-Memije ME. Actinic prurigo: demographic profile of the last 20 years in the division of dermatology at general hospital Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez in Mexico City. Dermatol Rev Mex. 2014;58(6):508–13.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    •• Plaza JA, Toussaint S, Prieto VG, Mercadillo P, Diez de Medina JC, Lourenco S, et al. Actinic prurigo cheilitis: a clinicopathologic review of 75 cases. Am J Dermatopathol. 2016;38(6):418–22.  https://doi.org/10.1097/dad.0000000000000459 Reviews clinical and histologic features of AP cheilitis, including the characteristic finding of follicular cheilitis.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vega-Memije ME, Mosqueda-Taylor A, Irigoyen-Camacho ME, Hojyo-Tomoka MT, Dominguez-Soto L. Actinic prurigo cheilitis: clinicopathologic analysis and therapeutic results in 116 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;94(1):83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rambhatla PV, Brescoll J, Hwang F, Juzych M, Lim HW. Photosensitive disorders of the skin with ocular involvement. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(2):238–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2014.10.016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Magana M, Mendez Y, Rodriguez A, Mascott M. The conjunctivitis of solar (actinic) prurigo. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000;17(6):432–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    •• Macfarlane L, Hawkey S, Naasan H, Ibbotson S. Characteristics of actinic prurigo in Scotland: 24 cases seen between 2001 and 2015. Br J Dermatol. 2016;174(6):1411–4.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.14444 Demonstrates that AP in white patients usually presents in childhood with female predominance, but tends to affect covered body sites more often than in Mestizos. Repeat phototesting is of value in cases with strong suspicion for AP. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Batard ML, Bonnevalle A, Segard M, Danze PM, Thomas P. Caucasian actinic prurigo: 8 cases observed in France. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(1):194–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    •• Chen YA, Yang CC, Ting SW, Lee JY, Chen W. Adult-onset actinic prurigo: report of 19 patients from Taiwan. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016;30(11):e140–e2.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.13450 Provides ongoing evidence to support a distinct adult-onset, male-predominant form of AP lacking mucosal involvement in Asian patients. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lestarini D, Khoo LS, Goh CL. The clinical features and management of actinic prurigo: a retrospective study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1999;15(5):183–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ker KJ, Chong WS, Theng CT. Clinical characteristics of adult-onset actinic prurigo in Asians: a case series. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2013;79(6):783–8.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.120726.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nahhas AF, Oberlin DM, Braunberger TL, Lim HW. Recent developments in the diagnosis and management of photosensitive disorders. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2018;19(5):707–31.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40257-018-0365-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chantorn R, Lim HW, Shwayder TA. Photosensitivity disorders in children: part I. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67(6):1093.e1–18; quiz 111-2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2012.07.033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mancheno-Valencia A, Bologna-Molina RE, Toussaint-Caire S, Vega-Memije ME, Cuevas-Gonzalez JC. Expression of E-cadherin, syndecan 1, Ki-67, and maintenance minichromosome 3 in tissue lesions of actinic prurigo obtained by incisional biopsy. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2018;61(2):225–7.  https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpm.Ijpm_574_17.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vega M. Características histopatológicas del prurigo actínico. Dermatol Rev Mex. 1993;37(Suppl 1):295–7.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lane PR, Murphy F, Hogan DJ, Hull PR, Burgdorf WH. Histopathology of actinic prurigo. Am J Dermatopathol. 1993;15(4):326–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Magana M, Cervantes M. Histopathology of sun prurigo. Rev Investig Clin. 2000;52(4):391–6.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Herrera-Geopfert R, Magana M. Follicular cheilitis. A distinctive histopathologic finding in actinic prurigo. Am J Dermatopathol. 1995;17(4):357–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Choi D, Kannan S, Lim HW. Evaluation of patients with photodermatoses. Dermatol Clin. 2014;32(3):267–75, vii.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2014.03.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Singh S, Khandpur S, Sharma VK. Allergic contact dermatitis to Parthenium hysterophorus mimicking actinic prurigo. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2015;81(1):82–4.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.148594.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee T-J, Wu Y-H, Hsiao P-F, Tu M-E. Coexistence of adult-onset actinic prurigo and shampoo dermatitis: a case report. Dermatol Sin. 2018;36(2):85–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Grabczynska SA, McGregor JM, Kondeatis E, Vaughan RW, Hawk JL. Actinic prurigo and polymorphic light eruption: common pathogenesis and the importance of HLA-DR4/DRB1*0407. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140(2):232–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yu RC, King CM, Vickers CF. A case of actinic prurigo and solar urticaria. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1990;15(4):289–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Beattie PE, Dawe RS, Ibbotson SH, Ferguson J. Characteristics and prognosis of idiopathic solar urticaria: a cohort of 87 cases. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139(9):1149–54.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.139.9.1149.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jong CT, Finlay AY, Pearse AD, Kerr AC, Ferguson J, Benton EC, et al. The quality of life of 790 patients with photodermatoses. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159(1):192–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2008.08581.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rizwan M, Haylett AK, Richards HL, Ling TC, Rhodes LE. Impact of photosensitivity disorders on the life quality of children. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2012;28(6):290–2.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0781.2012.00691.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hojyo MT, Vega M, Dominguez L. Actinic prurigo. Int J Dermatol. 1994;33(2):147–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lane PR, Moreland AA, Hogan DJ. Treatment of actinic prurigo with intermittent short-course topical 0.05% clobetasol 17-propionate. A preliminary report. Arch Dermatol. 1990;126(9):1211–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vivoda JL, Mantero N, Jaime LJ, Rueda ML, Grees SA. Prurigo actínico: tratamiento con tacrolimus. Respuesta favorable en dos pacientes pediátricos. Rev Argent Dermatol. 2015;96(3):30–4.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gambichler T, Breuckmann F, Boms S, Altmeyer P, Kreuter A. Narrowband UVB phototherapy in skin conditions beyond psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52(4):660–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2004.08.047.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Las DY, Youn JI, Park MH, Chung JH. Actinic prurigo: limited effect of PUVA. Br J Dermatol. 1997;136(6):972–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Collins P, Ferguson J. Narrow-band UVB (TL-01) phototherapy: an effective preventative treatment for the photodermatoses. Br J Dermatol. 1995;132(6):956–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Londono F. Thalidomide in the treatment of actinic prurigo. Int J Dermatol. 1973;12(5):326–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lovell CR, Hawk JL, Calnan CD, Magnus IA. Thalidomide in actinic prurigo. Br J Dermatol. 1983;108(4):467–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vega ME, Hojyo-Tomoka MT, Domínguez-Soto L. Tratamiento del prurigo actínico con talidomida. Estudio de 30 pacientes. Dermatol Rev Mex. 1993;37(Suppl 1):342–3.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Crouch RB, Foley PA, Ng JC, Baker CS. Thalidomide experience of a major Australian teaching hospital. Australas J Dermatol. 2002;43(4):278–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Paravar T, Lee DJ. Thalidomide: mechanisms of action. Int Rev Immunol. 2008;27(3):111–35.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08830180801911339.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Estrada GI, Garibay-Escobar A, Nunez-Vazquez A, Hojyo-Tomoka T, Vega-Memije E, Cortes-Franco R, et al. Evidence that thalidomide modifies the immune response of patients suffering from actinic prurigo. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43(12):893–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2004.02274.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yang CS, Kim C, Antaya RJ. Review of thalidomide use in the pediatric population. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72(4):703–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2015.01.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cazarín J, Román D, Messina M, Magaña M. Talidomida en niños con prurigo solar refractario. Actas Dermatol. 2002;2:11–5.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yong-Gee SA, Muir JB. Long-term thalidomide for actinic prurigo. Australas J Dermatol. 2001;42(4):281–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sharma NL, Sharma VC, Mahajan VK, Shanker V, Ranjan N, Gupta M. Thalidomide: an experience in therapeutic outcome and adverse reactions. J Dermatolog Treat. 2007;18(6):335–40.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09546630701386993.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bishnoi A, Singh V, Handa S, Vinay K. Thalidomide and thromboprophylaxis for dermatologic indications: an unmet need for more evidence. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;79(3):e45–e6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2018.04.048.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    United States Food and Drug Administration. THALOMID ® (thalidomide) NDA # 020785. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM222649.pdf. Accessed December 29 2018.
  66. 66.
    Torres-Alvarez B, Castanedo-Cazares JP, Moncada B. Pentoxifylline in the treatment of actinic prurigo. A preliminary report of 10 patients. Dermatology. 2004;208(3):198–201.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000077299.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Umana A, Gomez A, Duran MM, Porras L. Lymphocyte subtypes and adhesion molecules in actinic prurigo: observations with cyclosporin A. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41(3):139–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sitek JC. Actinic prurigo in Scandinavian adolescent successfully treated with cyclosporine a. Dermatol Reports. 2017;9(1):7050.  https://doi.org/10.4081/dr.2017.7050.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McCoombes JA, Hirst LW, Green WR. Use of topical cyclosporin for conjunctival manifestations of actinic prurigo. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130(6):830–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ortiz-Castillo JV, Boto-de-los-Bueis A, De-Lucas-Laguna R, Pastor-Nieto B, Pelaez-Restrepo N, Fonseca-Sandomingo A. Topical cyclosporine in the treatment of ocular actinic prurigo. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2006;81(11):661–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kohli I, Shafi R, Isedeh P, Griffith JL, Al-Jamal MS, Silpa-Archa N, et al. The impact of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract on ultraviolet B response: a human clinical study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;77(1):33–41.e1.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2017.01.044.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Saric S, Clark AK, Sivamani RK. Systematic review of oral and topical botanicals in reducing photosensitivity. Dermatol Open J. 2017;2(2):21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    U.S. National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov. https://clinicaltrials.gov/. Accessed March 10 2019.
  74. 74.
    Nitiyarom R, Wongpraparut C. Hydroa vacciniforme and solar urticaria. Dermatol Clin. 2014;32(3):345–53, viii.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2014.03.013.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    •• Liu Y, Ma C, Wang G, Wang L. Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder: clinicopathologic study of 41 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.01.011 Largest series of HVLLPD published to date. Provides further evidence of better prognosis in Asian versus Latin American patients and suggests poor outcomes in chemotherapy-treated patients.
  76. 76.
    Iwatsuki K, Satoh M, Yamamoto T, Oono T, Morizane S, Ohtsuka M, et al. Pathogenic link between hydroa vacciniforme and Epstein-Barr virus-associated hematologic disorders. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142(5):587–95.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.142.5.587.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hall LD, Eminger LA, Hesterman KS, Heymann WR. Epstein-Barr virus: dermatologic associations and implications: part I. Mucocutaneous manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus and nonmalignant disorders. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72(1):1–19; quiz -20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2014.07.034.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hirai Y, Yamamoto T, Kimura H, Ito Y, Tsuji K, Miyake T, et al. Hydroa vacciniforme is associated with increased numbers of Epstein-Barr virus-infected gammadeltaT cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132(5):1401–8.  https://doi.org/10.1038/jid.2011.461.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chen CC, Chang KC, Medeiros LJ, Lee JY. Hydroa vacciniforme and hydroa vacciniforme-like T-cell lymphoma: an uncommon event for transformation. J Cutan Pathol. 2016;43(12):1102–11.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cup.12801.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Quintanilla-Martinez L, Ridaura C, Nagl F, Saez-de-Ocariz M, Duran-McKinster C, Ruiz-Maldonado R, et al. Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma: a chronic EBV+ lymphoproliferative disorder with risk to develop a systemic lymphoma. Blood. 2013;122(18):3101–10.  https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-05-502203.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    •• Levoska MA, Cohen JI, Manoli I, Richard Lee CC, Ching SST, Shand J, et al. Recurrent scarring papulovesicular lesions on sun-exposed skin in a 22-year-old man. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;78(3):637–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2017.08.005. Provides a comprehensive case-based review of classic/persistent classic HV and HVLLPD, with a focus on etiologic underpinnings.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    •• Cohen JI, Dropulic L, Hsu AP, Zerbe CS, Krogmann T, Dowdell K, et al. Association of GATA2 deficiency with severe primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and EBV-associated cancers. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(1):41–7.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw160 Reports association between HVLLPD and deficiency of GATA2, a transcription factor involved in cellular immune respose and possibly control of herpesvirus latency.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gupta G, Man I, Kemmett D. Hydroa vacciniforme: a clinical and follow-up study of 17 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42(2 Pt 1):208–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0190-9622(00)90127-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sangwan A, Aggarwal K, Kaur S, Jain VK. Adult-onset hydroa vacciniforme: a rare occurrence or a lymphoma premonition? Indian Dermatol Online J. 2017;8(6):490–1.  https://doi.org/10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_286_16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mortazavi H, Hejazi P, Aghazadeh N, Esfandiari H, Ghanadan A, Jahanzad I. Hydroa vacciniforme with eye involvement: report of two cases. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015;32(1):e39–41.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pde.12390.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yamamoto T, Hirai Y, Miyake T, Yamasaki O, Morizane S, Iwatsuki K. Oculomucosal and gastrointestinal involvement in Epstein-Barr virus-associated hydroa vacciniforme. Eur J Dermatol. 2012;22(3):380–3.  https://doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2012.1665.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Miyake T, Yamamoto T, Hirai Y, Otsuka M, Hamada T, Tsuji K, et al. Survival rates and prognostic factors of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hydroa vacciniforme and hypersensitivity to mosquito bites. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172(1):56–63.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.13411.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Verneuil L, Gouarin S, Comoz F, Agbalika F, Creveuil C, Varna M, et al. Epstein-Barr virus involvement in the pathogenesis of hydroa vacciniforme: an assessment of seven adult patients with long-term follow-up. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163(1):174–82.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09789.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Xie JL, Chen GY, Jin Y, Zheng XD, Wei XJ, Zheng YY, et al. Hydroa vacciniforme present for 48 years with cytotoxic CD4+ T-cell infiltration and Epstein-Barr virus infection. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166(2):449–51.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2011.10556.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    •• Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Pileri SA, Harris NL, Stein H, Siebert R, et al. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Blood. 2016;127(20):2375–90.  https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-01-643569. Reclassifies severe HV-like eruption as HVLLPD. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Plaza JA, Sangueza M. Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma with primarily periorbital swelling: 7 cases of an atypical clinical manifestation of this rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Am J Dermatopathol. 2015;37(1):20–5.  https://doi.org/10.1097/dad.0000000000000158.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    •• Wen PF, Zhang M, Wang TT, Liu HJ, Zhang WY, Liu WP, et al. Comparative study of the clinical pathology, immunophenotype, Epstein-Barr virus infection status, and gene rearrangements in adult and child patients with hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder. Am J Dermatopathol. 2019;41(1):7–15.  https://doi.org/10.1097/dad.0000000000001229. Compares clinicopathologic and laboratory features of HVLLPD in Chinese children and adults to account for prognostic differences between groups.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Long V, Liang MW, Tan SH. Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder in an elderly Chinese patient and a literature review of adult cases. Int J Dermatol. 2018;57(11):1283–92.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14050.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Magana M, Massone C, Magana P, Cerroni L. Clinicopathologic features of hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma: a series of 9 patients. Am J Dermatopathol. 2016;38(1):20–5.  https://doi.org/10.1097/dad.0000000000000385.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sangueza M, Plaza JA. Hydroa vacciniforme-like cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;69(1):112–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2013.01.037.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Xu Z, Lian S. Epstein-Barr virus-associated hydroa vacciniforme-like cutaneous lymphoma in seven Chinese children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27(5):463–9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1470.2010.01094.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hijazi M, Malek J, Nabulsi M, Ghosn S. Atypical hydroa vacciniforme mimicking dermatomyositis: a case report in a Lebanese girl. JAAD Case Rep. 2015;1(2):63–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdcr.2015.01.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kim TH, Lee JH, Kim YC, Lee SE. Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma misdiagnosed as cutaneous lupus erythematosus. J Cutan Pathol. 2015;42(3):229–31.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cup.12425.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Noh TK, Haw S, Soung JH, Won CH, Chang S, Choi JH, et al. Systemic lupus erythematous presenting with hydroa vacciniforme-like eruption: mimicking Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. J Dermatol. 2012;39(12):1095–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2012.01643.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Huggins RH, Leithauser LA, Eide MJ, Hexsel CL, Jacobsen G, Lim HW. Quality of life assessment and disease experience of patient members of a web-based hydroa vacciniforme support group. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2009;25(4):209–15.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0781.2009.00446.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kil EH, DeLeo VA. A survey examination of patients with hydroa vacciniforme. Cutis. 2011;88(5):245–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Barrionuevo C, Anderson VM, Zevallos-Giampietri E, Zaharia M, Misad O, Bravo F, et al. Hydroa-like cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular genetic study of 16 pediatric cases from Peru. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2002;10(1):7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations