Coffee Drinking and Reduced Risk of Liver Cancer: Update on Epidemiological Findings and Potential Mechanisms
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Purpose of Review
We reviewed the available literature on observational studies, meta-analyses, expert reports, and umbrella reviews. Here, we summarize the latest findings on the association between coffee intake and liver cancer risk.
Most observational studies and meta-analyses show a protective effect of coffee intake on liver cancer risk, with dose-responsiveness and across different populations, and regardless of hepatitis virus infection status. Risk reduction by coffee consumption has also been observed for chronic liver diseases. Potential mechanisms include the effect of a number of bioactive compounds such as caffeine, chlorogenic acids, phenolic compounds and diterpenes; antioxidant properties; induction of defense mechanisms; and anti-inflammatory properties. Other potential mechanisms include improvement in insulin sensitivity and prevention of metabolic syndrome and diabetes.
Accumulated evidence, with consistency across study designs and populations, suggests that coffee intake probably reduces the risk of liver cancer. Future research should aim to elucidate the mechanism of this preventive effect with establishing the causality of an association.
KeywordsCoffee Liver cancer Epidemiology Reduced risk Dose-response Mechanism Causality
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Manami Inoue and Shoichiro Tsugane declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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